Revelation – Opening the Door – Four Horses
Article Two – Personality Test for All
The book of Revelation was written by 50 AD and did not directly mention the messianic turmoil just twenty years beforehand. The articles to follow will explain why the Christ of Paul was spiritual, not a literal person, and why John of Patmos projected the spiritual to a global apotheosis in a much later age. Modern Christianity has never understood the book of Revelation neither the synoptic books that were written to verify these two early writers. Christianity has given a literal account that has extended the dark ages down to the 21st century.
First Seal: Revelation 6:1–2 — White Horse
Four beasts from round about the throne open the first four seals. The throne embraces the four points of the compass, a worldwide phenomenon the likes of which have never been seen. See Ezekiel’s vision in chapter 1 — “heavens were opened” (Ezek. 1:1) — setting up this type. John says, “And I saw when the lamb opened one of the seals.… And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering and to conquer” (Rev. 6:1–2 – emphasis added):
- “White horse”: White comes from the Greek lĕukainō, meaning “light.” Light shines and is illuminating, representing creativeness. The full potential is about to be unleashed. The white horses in Zechariah 6:6 go forth from between twomountains of brass after “the black horses … go forth into the north country.” The white horses go to Jerusalem. “Thus saith the Lord, I am returned unto Zion” (Zech. 8:3). The white horse returns to Zion in Revelation. Obviously something is pending. White horses are returning home.
- “Bow”: Bow is from the Greek tŏxŏn /tiktō and means “to produce as a seed,” “bring forth as a mother delivers a child.” Bow in Hebrew is qesheth, in the sense of bending. The bow in the cloud was a token indicating a covenant between God the Maker and the earth. Humanity would always be delivered from a flood of violent, fighting warriors bent on destroying all. The bow of Revelation is paramount to a new covenant.
- “Crown”: Crown from stĕphanŏs means “a symbol of honor.” The rider is Faithful and True. Note that the word is not faith but faithful. There is no faith to behold, only embodying faithfulness. Crowned, from the Hebrew atar, is to encircle, encompass for attack and protection. There is no cowering as life’s possibilities are infinite. “What is man that thou art mindful of him? and the son of man, that thou visitest him? For thou hath made him a little lower than the angels, and has crowned him with glory and honour” (Ps. 8:4–5; Heb. 2:6), for the antitypical borrowing that brings it to today. “To day if ye will hear his voice” (Heb. 4:7).
It is important to note that in qualifying the symbols of the book of Zechariah, a book that records, “in the second year of Darius,” Revelation is drawing on types for the archetypal application. We all learn from types all of our lives, whether from poetry, drama, books, or stories. The archetypal application occurs when the book is opened. To this day, the book has not been opened, but now, “To day, after so long a time; as it is said, Today if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts” (Heb. 4:7).
The coming of the white horse, the new covenant, and a crown predicates a great awakening. A cultural metamorphosis is about to engulf.
The type is drawn from Zechariah (written around 520 BC down to Grecian times). The time quoted for the white horse is when, “I have bent Judah for me, filled the bow with Ephraim, and raised up thy sons, O Zion against thy sons, O Greece” (Zech. 9:13). Zechariah quotes, “So they weighed for my price thirty pieces of silver (Zech. 11:12),” “his feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives” (Zech. 14:4), “What are these wounds in thine hands?” (Zech. 13:6). All this is not a prerecording of a NT Christ. It is of events of old. NT types recirculate duplicating images from times of old. Revelation replicates them, giving it intense flavor for the apocalyptic age. It is now recurrent — the bells are ringing again with the opening of pages deep inside the Judeo-Christian age when a new Bible interpretation awaits judgment by all who hold the secret book — nearly everyone.
Second Seal: Revelation 6:3–4 — Red Horse
And when he had opened the second seal, I heard a second beast say, Come and see. And there went out another horse that was red: and power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another: and there was given unto him a great sword. (Rev. 6:3–4)
The red horse is a biblical brand in the OT found in the book of Zechariah. In apocalyptic times, we see a man riding again on a red horse and he stood among the myrtle trees. Behind him were red horses, speckled (strong bay), and white. Myrtle trees had a part in the Feast of Tabernacles way back in Nehemiah 8:14–15, so here again is the constant system of rejuvenation. The interpreter has to see the components — red horses and myrtle trees—to gain insight into the interpretation.
The angel that talked to Zechariah said, “I will shew thee what these (horses) be” (Zech. 1:9). The man who stood among the myrtle trees answered and said, “These are they whom the Lord hath sent to walk to and fro through the earth. And they answered the angel of the Lord that stood among the myrtle trees, and said, We have walked to and fro through the earth, and behold, all the earth stoodeth still, and is at rest.” The horses are all kinds of people.
In Zechariah, it is in the time of the rule of Darius the Mede, and the Jews are returning from Babylonian captivity to rebuild Jerusalem and their culture. Interference and delays in rebuilding Jerusalem are graphed in Ezra and Nehemiah. The Jews are promised a leader, Zerubbabel, and Jerusalem is to be finally restored.
Zechariah, in chapter 6, reiterates the vision of the horses, enhancing the narrative. This is very important to John, the revelator, as he looks forward to archetype in the latter days of Christendom. Zechariah provides a token formula for us — “To day.”
There were red, black, white, and grisled and bay horses. They came out from between two mountains of brass, Media and Persia (the extant powers). The angel told Zechariah, “These are the four spirits of the heavens, which go forth from standing before the Lord of all the earth.” “The black horses … go forth into the north country” (Zech. 6:6). This was despite being warned to “flee from the land of the north” (Zech. 2:6). “Then cried he (the angel) and said, Behold, these that go toward the north country have quieted my spirit” (Zech. 6:8). Black horses characterize those who persisted with obtrusive, rebellious, captive hearts. Everyone can point the finger.
In symbolism, the north country illustrates an opposition to the south — the Negeb, southern Judah, including Jerusalem. In the old, the north represented Babylon. But in Revelation, it points at Christianity’s Babylon. The hearts and minds of those who went to the north country were Babylonian predisposed.
Now we return to the four chariots with horses coming out from Media and Persia. The white horses go forth after the black go forth into the north. But the white horses do not follow the black horses.
The book of Zechariah opened with an early mold of post-exilic Jerusalem. The book soon transcends several centuries, as prophetic books do. In long-since desolated Jerusalem, restored and reasonably peaceful, disaster strikes. These are the days of the Greek rule, and many Jews have apostatized. They have joined the ranks of Antiochus Epiphanes to plunder the temple and exterminate the faithful, steadfast citizens of Jerusalem.
Here, God sends a “valiant man” to deliver Israel. The savior was Judas Maccabees, son of Mattathias of Modin, an Ephramite. And he went forth, conquering and to conquer. Here is the white horse and his rider, Messiah; Faithful and True is Judas Maccabees. The white horse, in the days of the kingdom of the Jews, was in Judah; hence the horse is mentioned in Zechariah 1. The grisled horses also go forth toward the south country (Zech. 6:6). The bay sought to walk to and fro through the earth. So they did (Zech. 6:7).
The book of Zechariah commences with the rider of the red horse already in Jerusalem, standing among the myrtle trees. That is where he stayed to help the conqueror, and he is not mentioned as going anywhere in Zechariah 6.
The black horse does not appear in Zechariah 1. His rider is going to Jerusalem’s northern enemy and this black horse rider had nothing to offer.
One has to have an appreciation of Zechariah and reorder this to Revelation chapter 6’s last days pending the great Apocalypse, which was very distant in time. The space would be global, with many horses to ride. And a lot of images would be transposed from local to ultimate.
However, before returning to Revelation, an important question must be answered. Why was the rider of the red horse standing among the myrtle trees in the post-exilic Jerusalem? He was waiting for his bride. We, likewise, in our post–Judeo-Christian society are waiting for the Testaments to be opened. Enlightenment will be like the bride coming to the wedding feast. You are invited to the coming wedding.
Post-captive Jerusalem was the capital of the kingdom of the Jews. A new era was dawning. The man under the myrtle trees represented the new kingdom. His older brother was a personification of the pre-captive kingdom of Judah, or the last seven kings of Judah. The older brother had died of apostasy. But his wife, the people of Judah (the woman, the enabler), was taken captive to Babylon.
Now the Jews were returning to Jerusalem. These people, figuratively speaking, were to be the red horse–rider’s bride, according to the ancient descriptive law: “If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not marry without unto a stranger: her husband’s brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and perform the duty of an husband’s brother unto her. And it shall be, that the born first which she beareth shall succeed in the name of his brother which is dead, that his name be not put out of Israel” (Deut. 25:5–6). You can see how each story has its place, its home. Judah had died, having been taken captive. A new birth was required from the kindred and wife of the deceased. Revelation’s trumpets sound and call for a rebirth of a revitalized Judeo-Christianity, as we also stand among our myrtle trees.
Soon there would be a wedding, a great atonement or reconciliation, followed by the Feast of Tabernacles in the season for plowing and sowing, perennially. A new Jerusalem, the city of peace would be reborn. This celebration initiates the new rule, the Davidian prodigy redeemed. Presented here is Revelation’s type of, “the marriage supper of the lamb.” And Revelation 22:16, states, “I am the root and offspring of David.”
The vivid portrayal of the four horsemen in Revelation, seen in brassy statues, is a parody of the churches’ having theologically gone astray, in the wrong direction. Let us not err. The Bible has never been opened and is not something simply learned by rote. Revelation’s four horses have to be drawn out of Zechariah’s Grecian episode and transmogrified to the time when the book is opened. So the horsemen of late Christendom gallop similarly when it comes to finding the truth of the superlative. Though not judgmental, the four seals are introspective, asking each of us to examine our own feelings and knowledge and the correctness of our ideas. A great inspiration battle springs forth. Minds chatter, “What is the book about?” The battle takes peace from the earth as the conflict intensifies. Where can type be found? “Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not come to send peace but a sword” (Matt. 10:34). And it is written, “They should kill one another.” Again, the gospel narrative is inscribed. “I am come to set man at variance against his father” (Matt. 10:35-36). All great change comes with upheaval, a great intellectual controversy about to be debated.
There was given to the rider on the red horse a great sword. With this powerful weapon he could help the trustworthy in their struggle. The sword, from machaira, is an instrument of war, or judicial punishment used against the defiant deceivers. The sword of the Spirit is the, “Word of God”, the word of probity, compassion, justice, and mercy.
The second seal reveals storm clouds forming on the horizon. Peace is taken from the earth, and people kill one another. Accepting the God of creativity is just too out of the box.
There is a mass of detail behind each seal needing careful consideration as we peep into this apex of masterworks. Be very patient.
Third Seal: Revelation 6:5–6 — Black Horse
And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo a black horse; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand. And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine. (Rev. 6:5–6)
Throughout the OT, the overarching message to ancient Israel and Judah was the condemnation of the worship of idols: “Turn ye not unto idols, nor make to yourselves molten gods” (Lev. 19:4). This message is a main theme steadily drummed into all by the books. Nothing is to be melted into a molten image. With the nation regressing, visible images of invisible doctrines become false exegesis.
Ezekiel described irrelevancies as idolatry. Time and time again, only to be delivered by a wave of uprightness, God’s peculiar people habitually slid into meaninglessness; described as abominations, whore mongering, divinations, sorceries, lies, or soothsaying. Uprightness, steadfastness, and faithfulness were personified by a merciful, forgiving leader. The judges were an example. They were personifying types, real-life beings. In Hebraic terminology, this incessant decline was known as “that curse of the flesh.”
This is the incident when talking about the “black horse.” Zechariah 6:6 reports, “The black horse went forth into the north country,” with north coming from tsaphon, which means “hidden, unknown, darkness.” North symbolizes a dark power; repressiveness; opposed to the south, the Negeb, Judah. According to Zechariah 6:8, “Those that go toward the north country (darkness) have quieted my spirit.” No messianic revival happens during the opening of third seal; it is all very black and mysterious. In a country where men loved darkness rather than light, there was no nourishment, only a pair of balances in the hand of the black horse rider. This confirms a kind of great famine in the land, a void of sustenance, and a lack of creation as the storm gathers strength.
The man with the balances in his hand is cunning and deceitful. Israel and Judah are represented as Ephraim in Hosea 12:7–8, where the balances are found “in the hand,” that phraseology being the deliberate parallel in John’s recollection. In Hosea, the saying is, “He is a merchant (Canaan), the balances of deceit are in his hand: he loveth to oppress” (Hos. 12:7). And Ephraim self-accusingly said, “Yet I am become rich, I have found me out substance: in all my labours they shall find no iniquity in me that were sin.” Intellectual stimulus was charmed by self-glorification and self-importance as the shadows of darkness covered the land. John, in a vision, saw this arrogant condition recurring. “I am rich, and increased with goods, and have need of nothing” (Rev. 3:17), boasted the Laodiceans, tokening Christianity’s denominations’ failure century after century.
In these words the cry is heard, “Awake, ye drunkards, and weep; and howl, all ye drinkers of wine, because of the new wine; for it is cut off from your mouth” (Joel 1:5). “Be ye ashamed, O ye husbandmen; howl O ye vine dressers, for the wheat and for the barley; because the harvest of the field is perished” (Joel 1:11). In the language of a portrait, their judgment is given. “Behold, the days come, saith the Lord God, that I will send a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the word of the Lord” (Amos 8:11–12). All will be weighed in the balances at the time of opening.
However, we leave the end of the third seal with the eternal flicker of light: “and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine” (Rev. 6:6). The servants of God are never to be stifled. There are always a few whose appetite is for the ancients’ message.
Oil was for lighting lamps as well as for anointing the light-bearers. The wine was to be kept for the celebration of the victory of the saints who are called to the marriage supper of the Lamb and his wife.
Revelation is a one-step-at-a-time book. Each seal brings to our attention the recall of particular OT and NT stories. Each opening seal needs time to ponder, consider, and digest. Don’t rush.
Fourth Seal: Revelation 6:7–8 — Pale Horse
And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth beast say, Come and see. And I looked and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them (or to him) over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with the sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth. (Rev. 6:7–8)
These fourfold calamities (sword, hunger, death, and beasts) were promised to ancient Jerusalem. Revelation draws the lesson from the time of Ezekiel but projects it into the reign of late Christendom. “The elders of Israel had set up their idols in their heart, and put the stumbling block of their iniquity before their face.” “So will I send upon you famine and evil beasts, and they shall bereave thee; and pestilence and blood shall pass through thee; I will bring the sword upon thee” (see Ezek. 5:5–17 and 14:1–23).
The “pale horse” comes with four curses. This is a very grim picture. To begin, the word pale is from chlōrŏs and means “greenish,” the same as the “green” grass mentioned later with the first trumpet. The rider is bringing maledictions to those who are verdant, inexperienced, or naïve — those who make no effort to understand anything. That’s most of us, unfortunately. The word chlōrŏs is derived from chŏlē, a female Christian name. So the seal is clearly directed at the churches of our dispensation. A female name is used as woman is symbolic of the life-giver. The pale horse is used to bring punishment to those who have blindly and without question or effort accepted maxims. His rider’s name is Death, and hell followed with him.
The writers of the seals proceed to relate the four torments — sword, hunger, death, and beasts. Why four? Four illustrates the four points of the compass, meaning global, “the four winds of the earth.” This seal reveals a worldwide judgment within ecclesiasticism. But those outside ecclesiasticism are also caught up in the web. No one escapes scrutiny:
- “Sword”: This sword is a counterfeit. It is not the word of the Spirit of God, the God of true, wise determinations. Coming from the word rhŏmphaia, meaning “saber” or “cutlass,” it is a very malicious, ravaging weapon, spitefully triumphing over torpidity, or those who have ignored the spirit of progress. It is very dramatic!
- “Hunger”:From limŏs, hunger is a scarcity of sustenance for the soul. The previously mentioned famine (third seal) has intensified. There is a longing for the food of mercy. Is it genuine? Isaiah vividly assigns the following: “Now go, write it before them in a table, and note it in a book, that it may be for a time to come forever and ever: That this is a rebellious people, lying children, children that will not hear the law of the Lord: Which say to the seers, See not; and to the prophets, Prophesy not unto us right things, speak unto us smooth things, prophecy deceits.” Is this the food that the “green” grass will accept? “Therefore this iniquity shall be to you as a breach ready to fall, swelling out in the high wall, whose breaking cometh suddenly at an instant” (Isa. 30:8–13).
- “Death”:Literal death means permanent cessation. Death is loss of intellectual life. John is writing in the spiritual sense. It is interesting to consider OT quotes regarding life and death in the flesh. The ancient writers are exemplifying the imperishable life. They uplift the food of the Spirit that the faithful hand to others. As they ingest their gift and develop, they in turn offer renewed sustenance. This is everlasting life. But death — how is death presented in the OT? Many quotes could be given, but a two shall suffice: “For in death there is no remembrance of thee: in the grave who shall give thee thanks?” (Ps. 6:5) and “Consider and hear me. O Lord my God: lighten mine eyes, lest I should sleep the sleep of death” (Ps. 13:3; see Ps. 115:17, Eccles. 9:5–6, 10).
Ezekiel has much to say concerning death, mainly using the word pestilence in a vision of the fourfold punishment brought upon Jerusalem. Ponder the reason this calamity befell Jerusalem, for this is our exemplar. Today those professing godliness are the corresponding part of ancient Jerusalem, being tied to the essence of susceptible conformity.
Cogitate in more detail on Ezekiel’s words of warning, for they are important. Think about this:
The elders of Israel … Son of man, these men have set up their idols in their heart, and have put a stumbling block of their iniquity before their face: should I be enquired of at all by them? … Every man of the house of Israel that setteth his idols in his heart, and putteth before his face, and cometh to the prophet; I the Lord will answer him that cometh according to the multitude of his idols; That I may take the house of Israel in their own heart, because they are all estranged from me through their idols. Therefore say unto the house of Israel, Thus saith the Lord God; Repent and turn yourselves from your idols; and turn away your faces from all your abominations (Ezek. 14:1-6).
Can vulnerable ecclesiasticism refresh and be born again? Or is it going to stay passively where it is?
For thus saith the Lord God; How much more when I send my four sore judgments upon Jerusalem, the sword, and the famine, and the noisome beast, and the pestilence, to cut off from it man and beast? Yet behold therein shall be left a remnant that shall be brought forth, both sons and daughters: behold they shall come forth unto you, and ye shall see their way and their doings: and ye shall be comforted concerning the evil that I have brought upon Jerusalem, even concerning all that I have brought upon it. And they shall comfort you, when you shall see their ways and their doings, and ye shall know that I have not done without cause all that I have done in it, saith the Lord God (Ezek. 14:21-23).
We are looking for the remnant in the end of days. We have to find that remnant, the great survivors, and it must come from freethinkers who are willing to consider all propositions.
- The “beasts of the earth”: These are a similitude of the two beasts described in Revelation 13:1 and 13:11. Revelation is saying that the former beasts in kind will arise again in the end times before the new age. They are types, metaphors, and parameters for archetypal application.
The initial, typical “beasts of the earth” vision was taken from OT Bible history and from prophetically written in Daniel 7–9 concerning the kings and kingdom of the pre-exilic, pre-Babylonian captivity. The second, a beast with two horns, is again referring to Jewish governance of the Pharisees and Sadducees in the NT. The second beast with two horns, it is said, should make an image of the first beast. Rome is not the subject, just as it was not in Daniel 2.
Both these two “beasts of the earth” show powers that arose quite unpretentiously but declined into treacherous corruption and tyranny.
Let’s quickly reiterate a brief outline of these “beasts of the earth” as they are emphasized in the fourth seal of Revelation 6:8.
We find the ten-horned beast and the seven-headed beast in Revelation 13:1. As the story proceeds, we see that the Hebrews left repression in Egypt (the dragon — Ezek. 29:3). They probably left in little groups and journeyed to Canaan, where they settled as a boisterous, rebellious, brutalized mob.
Israel of old was unrefined in the time of Judges even to the time of King Saul, the first king. Then the kingdom of Israel was given to David, and progress began with the command to Solomon to construct the temple. Israel divided into two kingdoms, with ten tribes (the ten horns) to the north and Judah’s two tribes to the south.
Israel apostatized and was assimilated into Assyria, never to rise again. Judah followed the Davidian line and had many ups and downs. Judah continually backslid even into idolatry up to the time of Hezekiah and then regressed further during the last seven kings (the seven heads) of Judah, with minor reforms under Josiah.
Thus we have the two pre-exilic kingdoms:
- Israel: destroyed
- Judah: two captivities to Babylon; briefly in Jehoiachin’s reign (606 BC) and then in Zedekiah’s reign (588 BC).
The second beast of Revelation 13:11, reflects the beast of the NT era. It also is a forewarning of much more ferocious beasts that would arise and dominate globally. Again, this beast with the two horns is a transposition from the kingdom of the Jews. Post-Babylonian captivity saw the kingdom rise to power, prepared to restart anew. All was quiet for some time. Gradually, Jews took an interest in idolatrous Hellenism (see 1 Macc. 1:11–15). Their own culture began to wane. The renegade Jews hardened their hearts, blinded with Grecian mores. Renegade Jews joined Antiochus Epiphanes (the Greek-Syrian leader) to plunder the temple. Many Jews became hellenized and translated their sacred books into Greek. Daniel termed the idol worshipping Jews as, “an host that was given him (Antiochus Epiphanes) against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practiced and prospered” (Dan. 8:12). Daniel confirms this conspiracy in Daniel 8:24, “but not by his own power.”
Here in Greek days, the post-exilic era of the Jewish kingdom originated in all sincerity, but it ended in turmoil and hostility due to the traitorous rebellion of Jews to Antiochus Epiphanes and despair of Jewish governance. This despair grew until the victory by Judas Maccabees over Antiochus Epiphanes. With Judas Maccabees’ victory, the temple was repaired and rededicated (2 Macc. 10:1–8). So peaceful a nation was it, that Zechariah records, “There shall yet old men and old women dwell in the streets of Jerusalem, and every man with his staff in his hand for very age. And the streets of the city shall be full of boys and girls playing in the streets thereof” (Zech. 8:4–5).
The Hasmonean kingdom of the Jews established official contacts with the Romans, leading to the Roman invasion of Judea in 63 BC, with the Hasmoneans being displaced in 37 BC and the appointment of Herod the Great. Although Herod rebuilt the temple, many Greek-Roman style sporting contests were introduced, including gladiatorial combats and chariot races held in the new arenas. Within Judea, four groups were identified: the Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, and Zealots. Pharisees claimed to be keepers of the oracles of God and unwavering retainers of Levitical law. The Sadducees held the civic power. Both were tyrannical and oppressive. Both were to be held responsible for silencing the messianic body some of whom were Essenes and Zealots. The two-horned beast of gospel days, we are told, “spake as a dragon.” Some matters were referred to Rome but were always sanctioned through the Jewish councils, Sanhedrin, and high priests. Rome reluctantly and at last resort intervened in the life and times of the early messianic movement, personified in the likes of John the Baptist and Jesus Christ.
Paul’s writing reflected the true inspiration in the OT, passed down in textual form. Paul, a Pharisee, grasped the intent and saw that light shine. This would be like the church seeing the Bible opened. The synoptic books, using midrashic techniques, were supplementary to Paul by recording the angst against Jewish leadership in detail. The synoptic books list chapter after chapter of the questioning misdemeanors and crimes with intent by the Pharisees, Sadducees, scribes, and other administrators. The messianic awakening realized too well that the two-horned beast would eventually lead to the total collapse of the Judean society, but that did not eventuate until long after the dating of the Messiah with the burning of Jerusalem in AD 70.
A superficial interpretation of the messianic catastrophe would be indelibly etched in the minds of future generations, but its resurrected body and second coming would have to wait until apocalyptic times. The uprising had been inspired by Judas’s victory over the Grecians with Judas being the stone setting up the everlasting kingdom. The persecution and crucifixion was to be recorded in the NT documenting the long struggle over the restrictive latter-day Pharisees and Sadducees. John, the revelator, pictured these former beasts, arising again in earthly end times. The year AD 70 was not the subject of the NT but initiated the permanent end to old Judaism and was the perfect environment for a new, watered-down version of theology to emerge, leading to an extensive Age of Darkness and a literal wrapping and warping of all.
Enough said about the pale horse’s (Rev. 6:7) power over the fourth part of earth. The pale-greenish horse, usually those deeming themselves knowledgeable in society, is likely to be those proffering violence for resolution of contentious issues. This violence comes to the fore in Revelation 13 when these former hollow beasts of the earth have prominence. The fourth seal — pale horse, sword, hunger, death, and beasts — forewarns us of apocalyptic times ahead.