Type 3: Saul, David, and Solomon; Israel and Judah – (Extract of Early Draft version but excluding First Insight into Revelation)
This chapter will begin to turn your Christian outlook inside out. There are great, symbolic, cosmic, heroic types in the OT stretching back into antiquity who are equal in notoriety and fame to the Homeric warrior. They encompass what we have been and what we may be. These OT heroes will return as symbols in the book of Revelation, and that will be fully explained as we proceed. That is why they must be covered. This proposition has never been documented nor seen embedded in the writings before. Incredibly, they are not hidden, beneath the canvas, but placed symbolically in Revelation. That is why these figures are of utmost importance. Later, we will show that the antitypical, emblematic Pharisees and Sadducees met these earlier types in culmination. The old epics will be seen to dominate the apocalyptic vision! Type-antitype is the basis, and so the past is ever manifested, the wind in the sail.
The form of these kingly personifications must be copiously investigated from the texts. Otherwise, you won’t be convinced that there is a critical, overlooked angle. Once the old form is amply demonstrated, then the same replication can easily be found in the NT. You have a choice — remain where the sign says, “You are here,” or move your spirituality forward without ever looking back. A bright light shines. Plato would be dizzy, amazed, proud, sitting right on his perch. Plato would think these precedents ideal. The architecture that the ancient writers conceived is perceived from these kingly ineffaceable texts. They embed a story in an idiosyncratic form. So let’s go through the wide open door, Revelation 3:20, entering upon this new age of Bible interpretation.
With a fresh mind, we can deconstruct these three kings and two kingdoms. They present a pure, dazzlingly euphoria for our hearts and souls. Let’s look at their striking attributes. They commenced the history of Israel as a nation and dominate the OT. Every major aspect of each king’s features must be individually traced, collated, and associated, and it must be perfectly consistent, reconciled in all identifiable character facets. Precision has to be achieved before we reflect. The king’s image in antitype and archetype then stands out. We will then be rockin’ and rollin’ to the pearly gates.
The book of Daniel is the link from the OT to the NT in regard to typologies. This is well known but rarely deduced to its implication. Daniel described three beasts and one very diverse beast. It is straightforward to check the beast’s identification through the attributes of each king — Saul, David, and Solomon — and the kingdoms of Israel and Judah as the diverse beast. Here is required a little scholarship, patience, tenacity, and discovery, but there is gold at the rainbow’s end, a perpetual covenant. Here a little, there a little. It is like deciphering a new alphabet, symbolic stories of embellished history surpassing simple phonetics and hieroglyphics and discarding gods of every kind. I guarantee exceptional value.
The fascinating words of Daniel 7:3 are, “and four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another.” We have to dissect these kingly beasts and discover the fourth diverse beast. It is not a very strenuous task. They are distinct, disparate, and incongruent, their DNA unique. Daniel clearly and purposely contrasts each king’s most formidable features. So let’s look back before projecting and reversing the images. At least the language is not at all indecipherable. Let’s put them in a line up. Here we go — enjoy the ride.
Daniel’s First Beast Identification: The Lion King — Saul
Why was Saul known as the Lion King?
Daniel 7:4 says, “The first was like a lion, and had eagle’s wings: I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man, and a man’s heart was given it.” (emphasis added).
We have not been sufficiently forearmed and enlightened to foresee the allegorical as descriptive. But the ancient writers interwove all books to create a reliable, pure golden thread of certainty. It is time to interpret at the higher level the colorful configuration, what may be called divine ideation. Saul’s standout features are as follows:
- “Lion” had “eagle’s wings”: — In Proverbs 23:4–5, the writer narrates concerning eagle’s wings, saying, “Labour not to be rich … riches certainly make themselves wings; they fly away as an eagle towards heaven.” So this king we need to identify had riches, and this was synonymous with eagle wings. In the book of Samuel, Saul took the spoils of the Amalekites, sheep and oxen, and the chief of the things that should have been utterly destroyed. See also the stock of Saul in Chronicles. Saul’s riches transgressed the word of the Lord, with the quick destruction of the Amalekites. Saul was rich and quick-footed like a lion. Saul matches the description of eagle wings.
- “The wings thereof were plucked”: — “Plucked,” from merat, indicates “peeled,” “polished” (confident, elegant, and skilled). This is exactly how Saul was characterized. “There was a man of Benjamin, whose name was Kish … a mighty man of power (substance, wealth). And he had a son, whose name was Saul, a choice young man and a goodly: and there was not among the children of Israel a goodlier person than he” (1 Sam. 9:1–2). Saul overwhelmingly demonstrated all these superior facets. Saul matches the sophistication emanating from the word.
- “Lifted up from the earth” and “stand upon the feet as a man”: — In Daniel, the lion “was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man.” A lion standing upright on his hind legs would be taller than any man. Very tellingly, Saul, “from his shoulders and upward he was higher than any of the people” (1 Sam. 9:2). Every scholar knows Saul was mighty in height. Numerous times, artists have drawn Saul’s lion like stance towering over others. Only Saul could be said, in early chronicles, to be this one.
- “And a man’s heart was given to it” (the lion): — Samuel anointed Saul (1 Sam. 10:1), “And it was so, that when he (Saul) had turned his back to go from Samuel, God gave him another heart” (1 Sam. 10:9). This must have been the world’s first heart transplant. It is more than just a coincidence that Saul matches the fourth characteristic. Saul is the only grand character to be given a new heart.
From Daniel’s laboratory, we have specific attributes of the lion. Saul perfectly passes four tests, with flying colors, in a clinical autopsy. Saul was the king who had riches, Saul was polished, Saul was lifted up, and Saul was given a new heart. This is picture-perfect, indisputable, beyond a reasonable doubt. Let’s not jump ahead of ourselves, but it is getting exciting that we are able to pin Saul down as the lion king. What would Disney think?
Let’s also quote a few direct texts from the KJV to outline Saul’s character and why he was identified as a lion beast in Daniel:
- “that the evil spirit from God came upon Saul” (1 Sam. 18:10)
- “and Saul became David’s enemy continually” (1 Sam. 18:29)
- “Saul sought to smite David even to the wall” (1 Sam. 19:10)
- “Saul sent messengers to take David” (1 Sam. 19:20) … “again the third time” (1 Sam. 19:21)
- “Saul’s anger was kindled against Jonathan” (1 Sam. 20:30)
- Saul disguised himself “and they came to the woman by night … pray thee, divine unto me” (1 Sam. 28:8)
- Saul “fell likewise upon his sword” (1 Sam. 31:5)
Now to the next king recorded by Daniel and perfectly reflected in Revelation 13.
Daniel’s Second Beast Identification: The Bear King — David
Why was David known as the Bear King?
In Daniel, three distinctive features are found relating to the second king. “And behold another beast, a second, like a bear, and it raised up itself on one side (or “raised up one dominion” — see margin notes in KJV), and it had three ribs in the mouth of it between the teeth of it; and they said thus unto it, Arise, devour much flesh” (Dan. 7:5). David’s standout features are as follows:
- “raised up itself on one side”: — “And David perceived that the Lord had established him king over Israel, and that he had exalted his kingdom for the people Israel’s sake” (2 Sam. 5:12; 2 Sam. 7:16). David’s insignia bore the establishment of a dominion. It certainly raised itself up. David’s catalog of mighty men is listed in 1 Chronicles 11. Match one for David.
- “three ribs in its mouth”: — David smote Moab but did not destroy its people; “the Moabites became David’s servants” (2 Sam. 8:2). Similarly, the same is pronounced of the Syrians in 2 Samuel 8:6 and the Edomites in 2 Samuel 8:14. The three ribs in the bear’s mouth symbolized these three pestilent nations. The bear had not devoured these three ribs or peoples. It cannot be a mere coincidence that David’s part perfectly fits all of this recollection. Match two for David.
- “devour much flesh”: — David did devour much flesh in his conquests, especially that of Philistia. This is recorded in 2 Samuel and 1 Kings. It is clearly seen that Daniel’s vision of the bear portrayed King David in every aspect. No other scriptural character matches these signs. Is this description too much to bear or just hogwash? Match three for David.
Again, from Daniel, we have exacted the attributes of the bear. Scientists who treasure a spiritual sense, despite much turbulence, could be stunned at this discovered and verified palette. David was the king who had raised up a dominion, and David held three ribs in his mouth (Moabites, Syrians, and the Edomites). David devoured much flesh. These are three witnesses confirm David as the bear. You would not want to deny three times, would you? The palette is certainly becoming black and white!
Let’s also quote a few direct texts from the KJV to outline David’s character and why he was identified as a bear-beast in Daniel:
- David was forbidden to build God an house: “I will set up thy seed after thee.” His ancestors “shall build a house of my name” (2 Sam. 7:12-13).
- Thus saith the Lord, “Behold, I will raise up evil against thee out of thine own house, and I will take thy wives before thine eyes” (2 Sam. 12:11).
- The prophet Nathan confronted David, saying: “Why have you despised the word of God, to do what is evil in his sight? You have smitten Uriah the Hittite with the sword, and have taken his wife to be your wife.” Nathan presented three punishments from God. First, that the “sword shall never depart from thine house” (2 Sam. 12:10); second, that “The Lord hath put away thy sin.” David said, I have “sinned against the Lord.” And Nathan said to David, “Because of this deed thou hast given great occasion to the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme” (2 Sam. 12:14).
The palette is now as clear as crystal as Saul and David fit the descriptions.
Now to the next king recorded by Daniel and perfectly reflected in Revelation 13.
Daniel’s Third Beast Identification: The Leopard King — Solomon
Why was Solomon known as the leopard king?
In Daniel, we have two attributes of the third beast. The third beast was “like a leopard, which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl” (Dan. 7:6). Wings, as already stated, indicate wealth. “The beast had also “four heads,” illustrating much wisdom, as, “the wise man’s eyes are in his head” (Eccles. 2:14), which is synonymous with perceptiveness. So the question is, who was wealthy, and who was wise?
Solomon’s standout features are “four heads” and “four wings.” The Bible tells us in 1 Kings 10:23, “So King Solomon exceeded all the kings of the earth for riches and wisdom.” There are many phrases about Solomon’s wisdom in the book of 1 Kings: “He was filled with wisdom, and understanding” (7:14); “Solomon exceeded … for riches and for wisdom” (10:23); Hiram king of Tyre said, “Blessed be the Lord this day, which hath given unto David a wise son over this great people” (5:7). And in 2 Chronicles 9:23, we read, “All sought … Solomon, to hear his wisdom.” Wow, so much indisputable wisdom was cached in those four heads.
In the texts “heads” denote wisdom and “wings” riches. Solomon, increased in power and wealth, had gold in abundance, weapons of war, and a throne of ivory, built his own house, gave cities to Hiram king of Tyre and had numerous wives and concubines.
Let’s outline Solomon’s character and establish why he was identified as a leopard-beast in Daniel.
Although Solomon had great wisdom, he found many people to be subdued by David when he took over the reign; their numbers were said to be 70,000 for transport, 3,600 overseers, and 10,000 for relay work of timber and hewed stones. He owned 12,000 horses with horsemen and 1,400 chariots. Solomon strengthened his kingdom through marital alliances. In fact, 1 Kings records that he had 700 wives and 300 concubines! Within his kingdom, he placed heavy taxation on the people, who became bitter.
A massive temple was constructed, with the upper chamber overlaid with gold. A grand ceremony for the temple’s dedication was held, along with a great feast, for seven days for the Feast of Tabernacles and another seven days for the dedication. Palaces of the king were arrayed around the court, including a great hall. The Hall of Judgment was the palace of Pharaoh’s daughter. Solomon was surpassing the Hittite fortifications, or at least equaling them.
But Solomon’s downfall was imminent. He built on the mount opposite the temple. He violated the law of kings (Deut. 17:14–20), called the temple Solomon’s Temple instead of the Lord’s Temple, and married heathen wives. Jeroboam denounced Solomon for his sins. Jeroboam was given ten pieces of clothing of the twelve and would rend the kingdom from Solomon’s hands. He granted special privileges to the tribes of Judah, and this alienated the northern tribes. Although Solomon began well, he became separated from God for the pleasures of the body. He ended up in shame. Years later, oral history, once written, became the launching pad for uplifting standards.
By bitterness of spirit, Solomon learned the emptiness of life that seeks solely corporeal, earthly things. Solomon lamented his error.
And now to the great mark of all time that encumbered Solomon with a heraldic identification. Let the trumpets blast.
The Mark of the Beast – 666: Solomon — The Leopard King Beast
And here is another type within a type. It was also said of Solomon, “Now the weight of gold that came to Solomon in one year was six hundred threescore and six talents of gold” (1 Kings 10:14). Solomon has never, as far as I have researched, been identified as the source of the numerical number 666. Yet, once type is seen as a derivative of word etymology, the association is as straightforward as day follows night. No more speculation, no hypocrisy, no endless theological councils, no privy councils. Many are deceived, prophesying forward and failing to cotton onto the primary type before making an abstract projection. Incorrect comprehension results when the symbol appears for a second time: “Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast (the first beast of Rev. 13:1): for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six” (Rev. 13:18). How many times does a type in the OT crop up in the NT? Countless! Why cannot the NT archetypes be read in the light of the old metaphors? Reading the new version while taking account of the old unlocks the new, launching the reader into a higher aesthetic realm. Yes, we like to cling to firm ground, to be definite, as if losing the grip would plunge us into a deep unfathomable chasm, a bottomless pit, a grotto. But staying stuck in a crevice is worse.
Solomon’s tailored measurements fit perfectly. Even contemporary academics have been blindly led down the clerical path on this identification. Many preterist theologians quickly point to Rome through the practice of gematria, which associates letters with numerical values. It some cases, the values assigned to the letters of Nero Caesar, in the first century AD, miraculously and fancifully add up to 666. But it is there for all to see in the book of Kings simply stated. Associating this number to Nero becomes cultish and sectarian, promulgating a mischievous missionary agenda. Nero was never the object of the writers of 1 Kings.
Jehovah’s Witnesses believe that the beast for which 666 stands symbolizes many unified governments. Wrong again. In kabbalistic Judaism, the number 666 represents the creation and perfection of the world; the world was created in six days, and there are six cardinal directions (north, south, east, west, up, and down). The numerical value of one of the letters of God’s name is also 6, we are told! We have taken a road less traveled when Solomon’s peg fits squarely. See Wikipedia for a vast, endless array of propositions, all non-scriptural artifacts. They are blowing mind teases that defy all logic. Such chaos can be likened to a drunken sailor’s singing. This analogy completes the trifecta of the three kings’ analogy. Three matches are hard to dismiss. Rigidly adhering to unsubstantiated twaddle demeans the narrative. Can we let the meek keep their heads in the sand?
A detective would not require greater circumstantial evidence. Investigators would be confounded and astounded. Royalty would be upheld. But such is life. Three kings and three beasts identified. Are these beasts lurking and lying in wait? Wayward exuberance and missionary zeal have discovered little in these ancient writings.
There is more circumstantial evidence perfectly arrayed and even more subtly double knotted, one could say. It is best to have a quadruple knot to seal the mystery of mysteries. So here we go, fitting the pieces of the jigsaw puzzle after sorting the colors, before challenging denominational creeds. Any appeal to a higher authority would be circumspect as the weight of the evidence is overwhelming.
Daniel knew the identification of these four beasts, but that has eluded Christian apologists throughout all these centuries.
Daniel’s Fourth Beast Identification: The Diverse Beast — Israel (Ten Tribes) and Judah (Last Seven Kings before Babylonian Captivity)
Are the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, in the first temple era before Babylonian captivity, the diverse beast? Why were these administrations utilized as types? Why is the diverse beast differentiated from the three kings? Why did these types have to be firmly nailed down before they could be regurgitated in Revelation?
It is no secret that one must start with Daniel 7 to find what the “minister” preached and what ministers ought to preach.
Daniel 7:7–8 says,
After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns … and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things. (emphasis added).
Oh, so many tag identifiers. We should be able to google and find the links! It can’t be so cryptic that we can never work it out. Don’t tell us Luther that it’s imponderable.
There are many features of this diverse beast. Each building block must be aligned to Daniel 7:7–8 to construct a solid retaining wall. We are moving rapidly from kings to kingdoms. All the specifications are on paper in this verse. We must see how the typologies are built, aligned, and grouted. You must be able to build typologies as we proceed, adjusting your knobs of strings for the right melodic and harmonic chords. It’s like finding the culprit in a mysterious thriller. Let’s find the constituents. Any fictional writer would be proud of the integrated plot characterizations. Judah’s and Israel’s standout features are as follows:
- “Dreadful and terrible”: — Amos 2:6 says regarding the transgressions of Israel and Judah, “They sold the righteous for silver, and the poor for a pair of shoes.” Micah 3:1–5 says, “Oh heads of Jacob, and ye princes (from qatsiyn, meaning “magistrates,” “guides,” “leaders,” or “rulers”) … Who hate the good, and love the evil; who pluck off their skin from off them, and their flesh from off their bones; Who also eat the flesh of my people … break their bones … the prophets make my people err, that bite with their teeth and cry, Peace …” Nearly all of the prophetic books speak of the philosophical religious erring of Israel and Judah recorded in the spider’s web of the fertile ground of OT illustrative history.
- “Diverse from all beasts that were before”: — Daniel writes, “I would know the truth of the fourth beast, which was diverse from all the others” (Dan. 7:19). The word diverse is from shena, meaning “changed” or “made different.” This change is explained as follows: Daniel was told regarding the four beasts, “These great beasts are four kings which shall arise.” The word king is from When Daniel says, “I would know the truth of the fourth beast,” the transcriber says, “The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth.” The word kingdom is from malkûw. Note the difference—melek refers to “king,” while malkûw refers to “kingdom.” This is a key difference from the earlier discussion about the three kingly beasts.
The fourth beast was diverse, a nondescript beast, comprising two powers, Israel and Judah. As the story goes, they had regressed, and the writers vividly conjured the graphic image of the beasts’ devouring the people. Bible “history” tells us that, because of Solomon’s idolatry (1 Kings 11:4–11), the kingdom of Israel was divided. The northern kingdom of ten tribes became Israel with Samaria as its capital, and Jeroboam became king (1 Kings 12:20). Jeroboam’s kingdom slipped into idolatry. The prophets vehemently condemned this vacuous, nihilistic void, but Jeroboam made two calves of gold, which the people worshipped. This became known as an abomination (see 1 Kings 12:25–33). The southern kingdom of Judah, with the small tribe of Benjamin, had its capital at Jerusalem. Rehoboam, son of Solomon, was their first king.
The fourth beast of the two kingdoms displayed the same cruel, ferocious characteristics with an emphasis on Judah following Israel’s demise, when Israel was assimilated into Assyria. All of this is synoptically recorded in the four books of Kings and Chronicles with the same story duplicated.
- “Ten horns”: — Daniel continued to seek to solve this mystery, saying, “I would know the truth … of the ten horns that were in his head, and of the other which came up, and before whom three fell; even of that horn that had eyes, and of mouth that spake very great things, and whose look was more stout than this fellows” (Dan. 7:20). The interpreting minister said, “The ten horns … are ten kings” (Dan 7:24). Micah 3:1 called them princes or royals when drawing the ten tribes of Israel. Revelation 13:1 reads, “Upon his horns ten crowns.” And Daniel goes further: “the ten horns … are ten kings that shall arise: and another shall rise after them … and shall subdue three kings” (Dan. 7:24).
These ten horns are ten kings that arose and became the northern kingdom, having split off from the twelve tribes at the end of King Solomon’s reign:
The Ten Horn Type: Tribes of Israel:
- Asher (plucked—moved permanently to Jerusalem)
- Zebuluon (plucked—moved permanently to Jerusalem)
- Manasseh (plucked—moved permanently to Jerusalem)
To confirm definitely that Israel is the “ten horn” type we have to document that out of these ten tribes, three were plucked, and return to Jerusalem. Returning to Jerusalem has significant meaning which we cover further well into the manuscript in Revelation.
- “before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots”: — Daniel said there came up among them (Israel) another little horn (Judah), and these three horns were uprooted.
Just before the time the ten horns (ten tribes) of Israel surrendered to Assyria (721 BC), Hezekiah became King of Judah (726 BC). Hezekiah brought about a great reform, opening, restoring, and cleansing the temple and its services. His idolatrous father, Ahaz, had polluted the temple. Hezekiah, having cleansed the temple, invited all of Judah (Benjamin, Judah, and Levi) and Israel to come to Jerusalem to keep the Passover (2 Chron. 30:5). “Divers,” which means “men” or “mortals,” of Asher, Manasseh, and Zebuluon humbled themselves and came to Jerusalem (2 Chron. 30:10–11). These are the three horns out of the ten that were “plucked by the roots.” Their move to Jerusalem was permanent (“before whom three fell,” Dan. 7:20). “Fell,” from the word nephal, means “was accepted and made welcome.” So the form-pattern fits perfectly. This return to Jerusalem refers to no other text. It is the only instance where three of the first horns were plucked by the roots. Why stretch the imagination needlessly to please masters? Elasticity can morph the symbol. These three tribes came back to Jerusalem during the late reign of Hezekiah or beginning of the recorded reign of the last seven kings of Judah.
The seven last kings of pre-exilic Judah reigned up until Babylonian captivity. With the exception of King Josiah, who conducted a partial correction (repairing the temple), these kings did, “evil in the sight of the Lord.” Together with the people, they continued to pay homage to idols, worshipping a variety of gods. Note that these seven kings exemplify another type, the little horn. The status of this seven kings’ type will be corroborated later in the exposition of Revelation 13:1, where seven heads prominently dominate the landscape.
OT types must be ingrained and thoroughly embedded in the psyche for the final antitypes and archetypes to give warmth. These types are a remembrance, just as we honor modern-day soldiers. Often, it can seem like pretense, maybe a charade, to repeatedly imply type. This style of concatenation is lesser taught, in Anglo-Caucasian circles, where facts are digitally sought as absolute proof. Without such reference, linkages in the NT become obscure, unverifiable, indecipherable gossip. Revelation has remained enigmatic to this day. However, the strings must be strung as the percussion is reliant on the prior script. The major OT embers are burning into the beasts of Revelation. Down the road, many more signposts to decipher lie ahead. Maybe the light is dawning.
The seven kings of Judah (little horn) of Daniel 7:8, reigning after the passing of Hezekiah, were grouped together and denoted by the signification “he.” Also, in the verse, “In this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man,” the word eyes, from ayin, means “outward appearance.” A much later writer put this condition of the little horn thus: “Having a form of goodliness, but denying the power thereof; from such turn away.”
We are told in Daniel 7:8 that this horn had a mouth speaking great things. “Great things,” from the word rabrab in Chaldean, means “domineering in character.” “His look was more stout than his fellows,” or more mighty and domineering. See Jeremiah 23:1–40 (speaking after the “prophecies against the kings of Judah” of chapter 22) for more details about the “great things” he spoke. “Woe be unto the pastors that destroy and scatter the sheep of my pasture!” saith the Lord. Pastors have been known to mislead wide-eyed congregations. Daniel 7:21 states that the same horn made war with the saints and prevailed against them. And that is putting it mildly.
The last seven kings form a type in pre-exilic Judah and are clustered as a group. This type fittingly ends with Babylonian captivity, ending the first temple era. The nation was in desperate windblown straits and was soon in straitjackets “among the captives by the river Chebar” (Ezek. 1:1).
The Seven Heads Type: The Little Horn — Judah Kings after Hezekiah/Immanuel up to Babylonian Captivity:
- Manasseh — “shed innocent blood till he had filled Jerusalem” (2 Kings 21:16)
- Amon — “did evil” (2 Chron. 33:22)
- Josiah— great reformer, but people remained in idolatry (2 Kings 23:4–27, 2 Chron. 34:22–25)
- Jehoahaz — “did evil” (2 Kings 23:32)
- Jehoiakim — “taxed … the people” (2 Kings 23:34–37); “They shall not lament him.… He shall be buried with the burial of an ass” (Jer. 22:18–19)
- Jehioachin — “did evil” (2 Kings 24:9); “a despised broken idol … a vessel wherein is no pleasure” (Jer. 22:28–30)
- Zedekiah — “did evil,” rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar with whom he made a covenant, then broke it, and was blindly led into Babylonian captivity (2 Kings 24:17)
See the table in Type 5 for a complete list of the kings of Judah, from David to Zedekiah. If you want to master this subject, a bit of lexicon-delving homework is essential. Strong’s concordance traces the root of each word and has much traceable detail.
Daniel 7 (vision of four beasts) is a symbolic summation of the Bible’s first temple era of pre-exilic Israel and Judah. It is the chain linkage covering the development from local to national. It sets up the four beastly symbols for later use in Revelation, where the Apocalypse is global. The prophetic books tell us that Judah was delivered from Babylonian captivity by a savior in the form of the Persian king Cyrus, the righteous man from the east (Isa. 41:2), the Lord’s anointed (Isa. 45:1). This was a duplicating parallelogram, centuries later, of deliverance from Egyptian captivity. It shows that nothing changes under the sun. If we don’t treasure, we can become indifferent.
In the earlier lesson, freedom was bitterly won and symbolized by Marah (Exod.15:23), the first station of Israel on the east side after “crossing” the Red Sea in the peninsula of Sinai. Mara is highlighted in Ruth 1:20. Mara was the appellation assumed by Naomi, meaning “bitter.” Both instances conjured bitterness. Both were forerunners to Mary of the NT. Also, Joseph means “increaser,” also a type from the OT. Speaking of cattle, Genesis 30:30 says, “It is now increased into a multitude.” So the OT type is always that bitterness increased and the result was captivity. The NT case of identification is closed — Mary, Joseph, virgin, and Immanuel, all OT vestiges. The verdict is given, but one can sense, in later times and places, further great escapes, from Antiochus Epiphanies, then again from the Pharisees and Sadducees, and, may I say, from the array of denominationalisms. The world moves in mysterious ways. Each incident needs its own reception and enduring respect. The Apocalypse ends all selective literalism in which we have suffocated.
There is no escape, no “get out of jail” card, no silence, no denying three times, no hiding behind the altar or in a crypt, no looking backward — the time is today, evening to morning, morning to evening, daily. Each day needs to be treated as a year. Exponents have always conjured the seven heads as seven geographic hills, Rome, or maybe Constantinople (Byzantium/Istanbul). How little they understand. It is not a case of the ancients’ holding back their perception. It had to be held back until it was global, when the world becomes one. Whether it is just willful deception or mimicking the irrational, both are given an adverse verdict. Persistent, dogmatic interpretation was not what the writers were about at all.
They mastered, perfected, reiterative lessons saying that there is nothing new under the sun — dust to dust and ashes to ashes. They emphasized, “Naked shall we return” for the “dead know not anything.” As it happened, lessons failed to be learned. Something similar would no doubt happen again, but maybe this lesson is hard to take. The cock crows again. Be forearmed and ready, was their message. But the apocalyptic archetype would be in the far distant future, much later than sooner, encompassing a wider outer circle — the depth, breadth, and height in full three dimensions. The writers were concerned with the cosmological eons of time, as well as the critical immediate.
Dürer: Sea Monster and the Beast with Lamb’s Horns
Dürer failed to recognize the ten horns as the ten tribes of Israel and the seven heads as the last seven kings of Judah. Dürer failed to recognize the two-horned lamb of Revelation 13:11 as the Pharisees and Sadducees. These apocalyptic monsters are watched but not recognized up to the end of the deep Dark Ages.
First Insight into Revelation: Daniel 7’s Lion, Bear, Leopard and the Two Kingdoms Revive in Revelation 13.1 (Excluded from this upload)