The table shows all the reigns of the kings of Judah taken from the books of Kings and Chronicles. It verifies the table below. It is absolute proof that Daniel’s vision of 9:24-27 was of plunder, burial and restoration of the two Jewish Temple eras – from David’s decree to Babylonian captivity (69 weeks) and the final 1 week a symbol of persecution of Greek overlordship, burial and restoration by Judas Maccabees – the Rock setting up the everlasting kingdom. Western theology of all denominations states Daniel’s vision was a prophecy of their coming Christ – denying the Ancient scribes’ craftsmanship. This has to be now doubted.
Pre-exilic – 1 week
1021 BC (David’s decree) to 972 BC (Shishak pillage) to 538 BC Cyrus “the anointed” freeing the Jews from Babylonian captivity but “not for himself”
49 years (7 weeks) – 434 years (62 weeks) Total 483 years of 490 years (70 weeks)
Gabriel taught Daniel to have high reverence for the Ancient’s message. The dating is of Ceremonial (Symbolic) Years (not Chronological Years) and recorded in the books of Kings and Chronicles. Shishak (from Egypt) pillaged Jerusalem in the year of 972 BC (5th year of Rehoboam). The first 69 weeks was of the 1st Temple era according to Holy Scripture.
Post-exilic – 1 week
The final week of Daniel’s vision told by Gabriel is of the 2nd Temple era as follows:
1 Week = 7 Years (Day-for-Year) = 7*360 = 2520 Days
2,300 days – “in the midst of the week” – plunder (Dan. 8.14)
10 days – intense persecution – mourning (1 Macc. 1:54-64)
210 days – of burying dead – reconstitution (Ezek. 39:12)
Western theology has always falsely projected the period forward from the time of Artaxerxex in 445 BC to 33 AD (justifying the discrepancy) claiming it as a prophecy of Jesus Christ excluding the original source of Gabriel’s telling to Daniel. Daniel comprehended the dates of the scribes in the books of Ezekiel and Maccabees and entwined the golden thread into a 70 weeks symbol representing our chance of ascending.
See the years of the Kings of Judah from Kings and Chronicles article for more details at: https://www.facebook.com/groups/966555060147453/
Compare to bigus interpretations:
Western ideology has never properly comprehended the books of Kings and Chronicles never finding, never understanding the ceremonial reign years of the Kings of Judah.
According to Wikipedia the following is true:
Quote “The Kings of Judah were the monarchs who ruled over the ancient Kingdom of Judah. According to the biblical account, this kingdom was founded after the death of Saul, when the Tribe of Judah elevated David to rule over it. After seven years, David became king of a reunited Kingdom of Israel. However, in about 930 BC the united kingdom split, with ten of the twelve Tribes of Israel rejecting Solomon’s son Rehoboam as their king. The Tribes of Judah and Benjamin remained loyal to Rehoboam, and reformed the Kingdom of Judah, while the other entity continuing to be called the Kingdom of Israel, or just Israel.
The capital of the Kingdom of Judah was Jerusalem. All of the kings of Judah lived and died in Judah except for Ahaziah (who died at Megiddo in Israel), Jehoahaz (who died a prisoner in Egypt) and Jeconiah and Zedekiah who were deported as part of the Babylonian captivity.
Judah existed until 587 or 586 BC, when it was conquered by the Babylonian Empire under Nebuzaradan, captain of Nebuchadnezzar‘s body-guard. With the deportation of the elite and the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple, the demise of the Kingdom of Judah was complete.
The Davidic dynasty began when the tribe of Judah made David its king, following the death of Saul. The Davidic line continued when David became king of the reunited Kingdom of Israel. When the united kingdom split, the tribes of Judah and Benjamin continued to be loyal to the Davidic line, which ruled it until the kingdom was destroyed in 587/586 BC. However, the Davidic line continued to be respected by the exiles in Babylon, who regarded the exilarchs as kings-in-exile.
Most modern historians follow either the older chronologies established by William F. Albright or Edwin R. Thiele, or the newer chronologies of Gershon Galil and Kenneth Kitchen, all of which are shown below. All dates are BC.
Correcting the Years and Explaining Daniel’s Vision
Albright, Thiele, Galil and Kitchen established chronologies not based on the “years” recorded in the books of Kings and Chronicles. It is a very simple procedure to go through these books and identify the years of reigns of these kings down to the year of Babylonian captivity, which I do below. All references come from Testament texts. I will then show how Daniel’s 9:24-27 vision matches the key highlights and hold open the book of Daniel. Unlike western philosophy that maintains the time periods of Daniel point forward to Christ and beyond I will show that Daniel was shown by Gabriel that the 70 weeks (7 weeks, 62 weeks and 1 week) were recalling persecution, burial and resurrection in the two pre-exilic and post exilic Temple eras. Daniel’s vision looked backward understanding the texts as written in the books of Kings, Chronicles, Ezekiel, Isaiah and Maccabees.
Prior to chronological time (pre-Babylonian captivity) all time was Ceremonial Time and should never be confused with chronological time as the above experts do. Wikipedia follows their misconception. The Western world always wants facts but the Ancients were graphically constructing the period prior to historical recordings. Ceremonial times were when theological thoughts were being formed, when the Ancients were endeavouring to comprehend the linkage with the cosmological. There was a great longing for their governance to be synchronised where the civil 180 days a year (1260 over 7 years) would match the sacred 180 days a year (1260 over 7 years). The total being 2520 days over 7 years completion. If the terrestrial could harmonise with the celestial the Jewish governance would ascend and the Jewish nation would not be under threat from the all-conquering belligerent nations that plunder for endless possessions. The Ancient writers using Ceremonial Years inaugurated a philosophical ideology based on ideals of perfection weaving their orally recorded history into a golden threaded vision. It was the first time I believe that a personification of history created a philosophical theology where there was to be no conflict between the heavens (heaved up things) and the earthly (governance). It was way in advance of all other nations’ gods as it bonded man to his environment, freeing man’s consciousness from these yokes of intellectual and physical captivation (Egyptian, Assyria, Babylonian).
When Daniel, thanks to Gabriel, was shown the magnificent Scribes recording he quickly came to an understanding that the books of Kings and Chronicles as Ceremonial Times provided a metaphor, an ensample for admonition. Ceremonial times are a allegory of the spirituality of mankind. Daniel’s 9:24-27 70 weeks (490 years) is a parody of our lifespan – threescore and ten – when we all have our chance of ascending from low (naked) to high (white linen). Daniel’s period is divided into three time period – 7 weeks, 62 weeks and 1 week. The 69 weeks split can be shown from the books of Kings and Chronicles to be split into an initial period of 7 weeks and a period of 62 weeks, both pre-exilic, ending in Babylonian captivity. The final week is located in post-exilic portrayal. All the periods are based on a persecution, burial and restoration theme.
The question why can’t the likes of Albright, Thiele, Galil and Kitchen accept the writing in the Old Testament books? It is there for all to see, without assistance.
So in contrast to the above, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kings_of_Judah, let’s document that recording in Kings and Chronicles, and move on:
|Ceremonial Years and Dates of Kings of Judah from KJV|
|Pre–exilic: First Testament of Old Testament
69 Weeks = 483 years (Day/Year Principle)
|Correct Back – dating Year||Kings of Judah||Ceremonial Years||KJV Reference||Key KJV Event|
|1021||David’s command to restore and build Jerusalem||49 years (D/Y principle) 7 years = 49 days 1021 BC to 972 BC. David’s command to build temple|
|Rehoboam (Shishak, King of Egypt, against Jeroboam of Israel in 972, in fifth year of Rehoboam)||17||1 Kings 14:21,
1 Kings 14:25
Shishak pillages Temple
|959||Abijah||3||2 Chron. 13:2||War with Jeroboam|
|956||Asa||41||2 Chron. 16:13||Reproved, diseased|
|915||Jehoshaphat||25||2 Chron. 20:31||Good|
|889||Jehoram||8||2 Chron. 21:5||Evil|
|885||Ahaziah||1||2 Chron. 22:2||Wicked|
|883||Athaliah||6||2 Kings 11:3||Slain|
|877||Joash||40||2 Kings 12:1||Punished — idolatry|
|838||Amaziah||29||2 Kings 14:2||Good beginning|
|808||Uzziah||52||2 Kings 15:33||Leprosy|
|756||Jotham||16||2 Kings 15:33||Good|
|742||Ahaz||16||2 Chron. 27:8||Wicked|
|726||Hezekiah||29||2 Chron. 29:1||Did right|
|697||Manasseh||55||2 Chron. 33:1||Wicked — to Babylon|
|642||Amon||2||2 Chron. 33:21||Evil|
|640||Josiah||31||2 Chron. 34:1||Josiah’s good reforms, 625 BC|
|609||Jehoahaz||1/4||2 Chron. 36:2||To Egypt|
|609||Jehoiakim||11||2 Chron. 36:5||Evil|
|599||Jehoiachin||1/4||2 Chron. 36:9||Evil|
|599||Zedekiah||11||2 Chron. 36:11||Blinded|
|588||Captivity, completed by 585 BC||Starting point to work backward with dating of kings’ reigns|
|538||Jews commence return under Zerubbabel||434 (62 X 7) years – 62 weeks = 434 days, 972 BC to 538 BC|
|538||Darius took the kingdom (Dan. 5:31)||483 (69 X 7) years – 69 weeks = 483 days (D/Y principle) 1021 BC – 538 BC|
|Cyrus’s (the anointed) decree (Ezra 1:1)|
The reason why the sixty nine weeks ( 69 *7 = 483 years of the pre-exilic era is broken into 49 years and 434 years is due to the recording of the invasion of Shishak of Egypt in the Ceremonial Year of 972 BC.
So who was Shishak? What does Wikipedia record?
Quote “Shishak is best known for a campaign against the Kingdom of Judah, recorded in the Hebrew Bible (1 Kings 14:25, 2 Chronicles 12:1-12) and his supposed sacking of Jerusalem … All Egyptologists identified Shishak with Pharoah Shoshenq I … In the fifth year of Rehoboam‘s reign (commonly dated ca. 926 BC), Shishak swept through the kingdom of Judah with a powerful army of 60,000 horsemen and 1,200 chariots, in support of his ally. According to 2 Chronicles 12:3”. Unquote.
But according to the Ceremonial Year dating this event of Shishak’ pillage is 972 BC – as documented from the books of Kings and Chronicles using the source text of each king’s reign recorded.
So Wikipedia cannot interpret Daniel’s vision as it uses a Chronological imposition over the Ceremonial superimposition that Gabriel taught Daniel. Wikipedia uses such terms as “commonly dated ca. 926 BC” above.
According to scriptural texts of the Books it is the pillaging of the Temple by Shishak 49 years after the decree by David (Bear – beast) to Solomon (Leopard – beast – 666) that was the first point of significance. From 972 BC for 434 years, until 538 BC is the critical image Gabriel enabled Daniel to see. But our media, thanks to the fathers of theology, are unable to grasp Daniel’s vision of the previous persecution, burial and resurrection in the two Temple eras. After Shishak it was not until Hezekiah appeared that the kingdom of Judah provided a savior – Wonderful, Counsellor, called equivalent to God – The Almighty God, Immanuel as the vigin (almah – without God) gave birth to a virgin society (bethulah – with God) as the Temple was restored by Hezekiah – that is the inner community temple. It was restored again after captivity engulfed the Jewish race in Babylonian. Cyrus (the anointed – the Christ) freed the Jews, but not for himself. Narcissist was not on his agenda but benevolence. Later Gabriel’s philanthropy enabled Daniel to understand and later in the third Temple era Paul and John of Patmos had a similar revelation of the Ancients’ compilation of there being nothing new under the sun. Modernity in vanity miss this eloquence.
For details of the final week of the seventy – see the post-exilic era recorded in my previous article.
It is certainly a long road to travel as we unravel the institutional errors that have proliferated time and time again right down to “Today”.
Here is confirmation that the last week of Daniel 9:24-27’s 70 week period (490 years) related to the post-exilic era. It is one of the greatest symbols of the testaments – it testifies that the OT is about freedom from bondage (ideological, theological and philosophical). It highlights an attitude that states that humankind must always be at one with the cosmological – terrestrial = celestial, sacred 1260 days – secular (civil) 1260 days (totaling 2520 days over a seven year completion), never a division between the firmaments, Light to overcome Night. We must learn to overcome 2,000 years of darkness whereby the original skill of the Ancients has been totally obliterated by modernity.
Daniel’s final week is embedded in three books in existence and open to Daniel, thanks to Gabriel. It confirms that the book of Daniel is a layered book – superimposed. The golden thread drew the pre-exilic era – 69 weeks and the post-exilic – 1 week together as one into the 70 weeks metaphor. The final week is 7 years or 2520 days (360 *7) representing three score and ten, our time to be creative., our time to loosen the shackles. The composition of Daniel’s final week relates to the period of Grecian over lordship ending the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes with Judas Maccabees great victory. The new era starts from there setting up a new temple where children played in the streets and old men sang:
|Post–exilic — Second Testament of Old Testament 1 Week =7 Days = 7 Years (Day/Year Principle) = 2,520 Days|
|1.||2,300 days — “in the midst of the week” — plunder (Dan. 8:14)|
|2.||10 days — of intense persecution — mourning (1 Macc. 1:54–64)|
|3.||210 days — of burying dead — reconstitution (Ezek. 39:12)|
|Total||2,520 days (2,300 + 10 +210)|
Here is a confirmation of those times from the books of Maccabees.
The books of Maccabees document the well-recorded military conflict that ended the second temple era, symbolized in the final week of the seventy weeks of Daniel 9. To the Jewish nation, the ending of the second temple era (post-exilic) was a most humbling historical event. The Jewish festival of Hanukkah celebrates the rededication of the temple following Judah Maccabees’ victory over the Seleucids. Here is the tone of the Apocrypha’s record to fully appreciate the plundering, restitution, and repair recorded in this final week of the symbolic seventy weeks of Daniel 9:24–27.
A few quotations from the books of the Apocrypha confirm the great betrayal by many Jews. This declension was kindred to that inflicted on Israel and Judah during the first temple era.
Let’s look at a few quotes:
- From the days of Antiochus Epiphanes, “In those days went out of Israel wicked men” who persuaded many to “let us go out and make a covenant with the heathen” – 1 Macc. 1:11
- “king … gave them license to do after the ordinances of the heathen” – 1 Macc. 1:13
- “place of exercise at Jerusalem” – 1 Macc. 1:14
- “made themselves uncircumcised, and forsook the holy covenant” – 1 Macc.1:15
- “all the house of Jacob was covered by confusion” – 1 Macc. 1:28
- “Yea, many also of the house of the Israelites consented to his (the king’s) religion” – 1 Macc. 1:43
- “forget the law, and change all the ordinances” – 1 Macc. 1:49
- “abominations of desolations upon the altar” – 1 Macc. 1:54
- “And whosoever they found with any book of the testament, or if any consented to the law, the king’s commandment was, that they should put him to death” – 1 Macc. 1:57
- “Thus did they by their authority unto the Israelites every month” – 1 Macc. 1:58
- “Now the five and twentieth day of the month they did sacrifice upon the idol altar, which was upon the altar of God” – 1 Macc. 1:59
- “they put to death certain women, that had caused their children to be circumcised” – 1 Macc. 1:60
- “they hanged the infants about their necks, and rifled their houses, and slew them that had circumcised them” – 1 Macc. 1:61
The sons of Mattathias recognized the decline of Jewish governance and compromise with Grecian over lordship. They rent their clothes and rebelled, saying, “We will not come forth, neither will we do the king’s commandment” – 1 Macc. 2:34. They had stern words against their brethren. Judas Maccabees was appointed their captain. Mattathias’s sons knew not to repeat the errors of turning to might and power. The sons sought to redirect their nation away from such an abyss.
Like Hezekiah and like Joshua, Judas Maccabees went about “destroying the ungodly out of them,” and “salvation prospered in the land.” His fame came unto the king, and Judas brought a great deliverance — salvation.
After the death of Judas Maccabees, the struggle continued by Judas’s brothers, Jonathan and Simon. Again, “certain pestilent fellows of Israel, men of a wicked life, assembled” – 1 Macc. 10:61 against Jonathan, but the king would not hear them. Internal betrayal was prolific. “Then certain ungodly persons, who hated their own people” – 1 Macc. 11:21 caused rebellion. But alas, Jonathan succeeded in “making the walls of Jerusalem higher.” Afterward, Simon quieted Judea, and then it was said that they, “tilled their ground in peace and the earth gave increase … ancient men sat in the streets” – 1 Macc. 14:8-9. Simon established “Israel and chased away in fight their enemies from them, and confirmed their liberty” (1 Macc. 14:26). This is again the story of the struggle for restitution and repair.
The Apocrypha is a confirmation of the second temple era. It is the backing for Daniel’s final week: “and he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week” – Dan. 9:27. Its writing is twofold — first to anthropomorphize in written form the second temple era’s historic struggle amid most tragic deeds. Second, and more so, it is a confirmation of the recurrence of type in antitype, nothing being new under the sun. Critically, it is the second witness. It verifies the last week parable of Daniel 9:27. It completes a philosophical elevation, bringing closure of two witnesses, both pre-NT recordings. The ancient scribes gifted an immemorial dedication to the godlike spirit of humankind.
The narrative provides an ongoing perpetual inheritance, perennial steps forward and backward, forward and backward, time over time. It provides building blocks. The greatest gift of all was a personified humanized model. It gives a foundation stone to the relationship between humankind and the cosmology and persecution, mourning and restitution — a threefold enactment. This was such a contrast to the pantheistic worshipping of their contemporaries.
To the scribes, God was no longer present, no longer the hand of action. God was at rest! Humankind held the rod and had to run the race. The Hebrew scribes grasped that scepter. They were rattled and aggravated, nettled by the brutal masculinity that permeated, destroyed, and obliterated. This story has been consigned by lukewarm Christianity centering on just one event which they believe Daniel 2 prophecies, but ends with the Rock (Judas Maccabees) setting up the everlasting kingdom (70 weeks symbol of three score and ten) where we can be, in likeness, if we are not in bondage.
The question is why does the book of Revelation use superimpositions to reveal “Jesus Christ”?
The first borrowing is from the book of Zechariah. In Revelation we see a “white horse” – Rev. 6:1-2, then a “red horse” – Rev. 6:3-4, then a “black horse” – Rev. 6:5-6, and then a “pale horse” – Rev. 7-8.
In Zech. 6:1-3 we are told there are four chariots – the first chariot was drawn by red horses, the second chariot by black horses, the third chariot by white horses and the fourth chariot by bay (pale) horses. The question is asked “what are these, my Lord?” and we are told these are the four spirits (ruwach, means breath, wind – personalities) of the heavens (shemayin, the heaved up things) – four encompassing all types of personalities from all quarters. These four chariots come out between mountains of brass (Media and Persia/Grecian rule) after Babylonian captivity. The superimposition from Zechariah is of a book that records, “in the second year of Darius,” written of the time of the end of Babylonian captivity down to the fight against the Grecians. The time quoted in Zechariah for the white horse appearance is when, “I have bent Judah for me, filled the bow with Ephraim, and raised up thy sons, O Zion against thy sons, O Greece” – Zech. 9:13.
The book commences with the red horse rider – Zech. 1:8 standing (motionless) amongst myrtle trees in Jerusalem. And this is a superimposition of earlier writings. An important question must be answered. Why was the rider of the red horse standing among the myrtle trees in the post-exilic Jerusalem? He was waiting for his bride. We, likewise, in our post–Judeo-Christian society are waiting for the Testaments to be opened. Enlightenment will be like the bride coming to the wedding feast.
Post-captive Jerusalem was the capital of the kingdom of the Jews. A new era was dawning. The rider under the myrtle trees represented the new kingdom. His older brother was a personification of the pre-captive kingdom of Judah, or the last seven kings of Judah. The older brother (Pre-exilic) had died of apostasy. But his wife, the populace of Judah (the woman, the enabler), was taken captive to Babylon.
Now the Jews were returning to Jerusalem. These people, figuratively speaking, were to be the red horse–rider’s bride, according to the ancient descriptive law: “If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not marry without unto a stranger: her husband’s brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and perform the duty of an husband’s brother unto her. And it shall be, that the born first which she beareth shall succeed in the name of his brother which is dead, that his name be not put out of Israel” – Deut. 25:5–6. You can see how each story has its place fittingly described by the scribes within the traditions of their society. Judah had died, having been taken captive. A new birth was required from the kindred and wife of the deceased. Likewise, Revelation’s trumpets sound and call for a rebirth of a revitalized Judeo-Christianity. We also stand among our myrtle trees in this apocalyptic age.
Soon there would be a wedding, a great atonement or reconciliation, followed by the Feast of Tabernacles in the season for plowing and sowing, perennially. A new Jerusalem, the city of peace would be reborn. This celebration initiates the new rule, the Davidian prodigy redeemed. In Revelation’s “the marriage supper of the lamb” is the story of redemption, refurbishment. And Revelation 22:16, states, “I am the root and offspring of David.”
70 years of captivity have ended and God was very jealous and displeased with the regression into Babylonian captivity of Israel and Judah. God wanted the house rebuilt and wanted the “four horns” of the Gentiles to be defeated by the “four carpenters.” A man with a measuring line is said to come and measure the new Jerusalem. There is a quest to “flee from the north”, to “deliver from the daughter of Babylon” and to return from Egypt, Assyria, Lebanon and Gilead – Zech. 10:10. Joshua the high priest is said to wear “filthy garments” needing a “change of raiments” (to white) and a “fair mitre upon this head”.
Zechariah with the help of an angel saw the restored Jerusalem – “candlestick all of gold”, with “seven lamps”, “two olive trees” to furnish oil to the right and left sides. The great mountain “Babylon” shalt become a “plain”. Their world was to be governed “not by might, nor by power, but by my spirit” the breath of the populace. We are told that the new Jerusalem would “formeth the spirit of man within” … and “I will smite every horse of the people with blindness” – Zech. 12:4. Zechariah was told “the prophets shall be ashamed” and will say determinately “I am not a prophet” – Zech. 13:4.
The “wickedness” of the past is described as “a woman that sitteth in the midst of the ephah (a measure)” and lead was cast “upon the mouth thereof” – a parody repeated in Rev. 17 – the woman on the beast. Obviously it was the wickedness of the mouth (speech) that had caused declension, a worsening falling away. This woman had certainly had weighed down the measure. But “two women” with the wind – ruwach – in their wings lifted up the ephah between the earth (governance) and the heaven (heaved up things) and carried it to Shinar – Babylon (In Rev. 18 tribes turn on her and dump her into the lake of brimstone and fire), to set her upon her own base. This was certainly quite an expulsion then and now.
But the western world ecclesiastical authorities over the centuries have prophesied that the book of Zechariah predicted, dare we say prophesized, their Christ by quoting verbatim these phrases of Zechariah:
- “thy King cometh unto thee … riding upon an ass” – 9:9
- “So they weighed for my price thirty pieces of silver” – 11:12
- “What are these wounds in thine hands?” – 13:6
- “Behold the day of the Lord cometh” – Zech. 14:1
- “his feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives” – 14:4
Zechariah’s would be familiar to “whirlwind” NT students those who “would not hear” that Zechariah recalls only Pre-exilic and Post-exilic eras and that any prophesying (projecting specifically forward) was frowned upon. It is time to recognize crafted Jewish portrayals of philosophical and theological ideals that referenced their recollection of their governance for their remembrance of the bondage. It is time to admit that the NT utilized the content of fables and tales of the long past in their construction of the battle against the Pharisees’ and Sadducees’ dual ruler-ship of sacred-civil pretense.
Other parts of Zechariah are distorted in a range of heretical theological teachings:
- Some commentators view these two mountains as the Mount of Olives and Mount Moriah.
- The bronze mountains could symbolize the kingdom of God, sending out judgment to the nations.
- The White Horse represents a false peace, established by military might. This false peace erupts into war with the emergence of the Red Horse.
- the rider has a bow and goes out conquering, his peace, however is false, since it is followed by war, the Red Horse.
- We end up with a picture of Jerusalem in the days of Messiah. In chapters 3, we read about Joshua (Jesus) the High Priest who pre-figures the servant called the BRANCH.
- In Zechariah the tribulation is followed by the establishment of the Messianic kingdom, where Joshua (Jesus) the High Priest will reign over the earth as both king and priest.
- The North Country in Jeremiah, and defeated by Cyrus the Persian – Isa. 44:28, 45:1-2 – the long term fulfillment being at the times of Messiah.
- The High Priest wearing the crown, presents the dual office of the Messiah, who will be both a priest and king. Psalm 110:4 declares he will be a priest after the order of
- Joshua the High Priest serves as the model for the Messiah, in Zech. 3:8 Joshua is seen distinct from the servant called the Branch.
- Joshua the High Priest has the same name as Jesus, which the world knows him by today. Just as Joshua and Zerubbabel, as king and priest, they worked together to build the 2nd Jesus Christ, the High Priest after the order of Melchizedek.
- He is called the branch because he is a stem of David’s line – see Isa. 11:1-3, Isa. 4:2, Jer. 23:5-6. The Branch will rule Jerusalem in the Millennium as both King and Priest.
- In the Mosaic Law, the priest and king were separate; therefore, this is clearly a picture of the rule of Messiah, who will be both king and priest on His throne.
What needs to be determined is why John of Patmos used the same colored horses in Rev. 6 albeit in a different order. For John, Zechariah’s colorful horses foreshadow apocalyptic times in a universal world. The above five phrases were later to be used in the Synoptic books after the completion of the apotheosis, a transformation or epiphany of humankind disclosed by Revelation’s revealing of Jesus Christ.
So let’s fully examine how John incorporated the old sayings of Zechariah into an apocalyptic epiphany that would come to the enlightening universal age.
John of Patmos’ Superimposition of Zechariah’s images
There is a great stampede at the beginning of Revelation of a Jesus Christ of the apocalyptic age. Four horses are portrayed representing four kinds of personalities. It is best to become familiar of how John extended the seen from Zechariah and what the colours indicate. Four beasts from round about the throne open the first four seals.
Revelation 6:1–2 — White Horse
John says, “And I saw when the lamb opened one of the seals.… And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering and to conquer” – Rev. 6:1–2. The white horses go to Jerusalem. “Thus saith the Lord, I am returned unto Zion” (Zech. 8:3):
- “White horse”: White comes from the Greek lĕukainō, meaning “light.” Light shines and is illuminating. The full potential is about to be unleashed. Obviously something unknown is pending. White horses are returning home.
- “Bow”: Bow is from the Greek tŏxŏn /tiktō and means “to produce as a seed,” “bring forth as a mother delivers a child.” Bow in Hebrew is qesheth, in the sense of bending. The bow in the cloud was a token indicating a covenant between God the Maker and the earth. Humanity would always be delivered from a flood of violent, fighting warriors bent on destroying all. The bow of Revelation is paramount to a new apocalyptic covenant – that John emphasized was “unseen”.
- “Crown”: Crown from stĕphanŏs means “a symbol of honor.” The rider is Faithful and True. Note that the word is not faith but faithful. There is no faith (bondage) to behold, only embodying faithfulness. Crowned, from the Hebrew atar, is to encircle, encompass for attack and protection. There is no cowering as modernity’s life is infinite. “What is man that thou art mindful of him? and the son of man, that thou visitest him? For thou hath made him a little lower than the angels, and has crowned him with glory and honour” – 8:4–5; Heb. 2:6, for the archetypical brings it to today. “To day if ye will hear his voice” – Heb. 4:7.
Revelation is the master of superimposing for archetypal application. We all learn from types all of our lives, whether it be poetry, drama, books, stories, tales or fables. The archetypal application occurs when the book is opened. To this day, the book has not been opened, but now, “To day, after so long a time; as it is said, Today if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts” – Heb. 4:7. To the scribes the book was open. They knew what they were doing – as portrayed in Immanuel (Hezekiah’s restoration), Daniel (Judas Maccabees, the Rock, great victory) and Paul’s epiphany (enlightenment of the open writing of the scribes).
The coming of the white horse, the new covenant, and a crown predicates a great awakening (much greater than the Reformation era). A cultural metamorphosis is about to engulf the universe far greater than any clash of cultures. A new marriage is pending signified by white raiments.
Revelation 6:3–4 — Red Horse
And when he had opened the second seal, I heard a second beast say, Come and see. And there went out another horse that was red: and power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another: and there was given unto him a great sword – Rev. 6:3–4.
There was given to the rider on the red horse a great sword. With this powerful weapon he could help the white horse to bring light. The sword, from machaira, is an instrument of war, or judicial punishment used against the defiant deceivers of death – represented by black and being pale. The sword of the Spirit is the, “Word of God”, the word of probity, compassion, justice, and mercy. The red horse rider in waiting patiently reveals storm clouds forming. Peace is taken from the earth, and people kill one another in a struggle between the overly possessive (Cain – narcissism, vainity and self-love) and the philanthropic (Abel – generous, charitable and altruistic).
Theological pretense has made a complete error in interpretation. The white (light – renown – Shem) and red (remnant warriors) horsemen are positivity compared to the black (death – Japeth – Nimrods – giants) and pale (bay – spotted – greenish – Ham).
In apocalyptic times, we see a man riding again on a red horse and he stood among the myrtle trees. Behind the waiting man were red his horses. Myrtle trees had a part in the Feast of Tabernacles, the restoration process, way back in Nehemiah 8:14–15, so here again is the constant system of rejuvenation. The interpreter has to see the components — red horses and myrtle trees — there is always onward soldiers marching as to war, with the cross of Jesus going on before! They certainly hold a sword.
The angel that talked to Zechariah said, “I will shew thee what these (horses) be” – Zech. 1:9. The man who stood among the myrtle trees answered and said, “These are they whom the Lord hath sent to walk to and fro through the earth. And they answered the angel of the Lord that stood among the myrtle trees, and said, We have walked to and fro through the earth, and behold, all the earth stoodeth still, and is at rest.” Yes the world has stood still in possessiveness, warring, ideological confrontation, death. The walkers, the movers have been patient too long. But the hare will always catch the tortoise. In Zechariah, it is in the time of the rule of Darius the Mede, and the Jews are returning from Babylonian captivity to rebuild Jerusalem their culture. Interference and delays in rebuilding Jerusalem are graphed in Ezra and Nehemiah. Patience under shade is required. The Jews are promised a leader, Zerubbabel, and Jerusalem is to be finally restored.
Zechariah, in chapter 6, reiterates the vision of the horses, enhancing the narrative. This is very important to John, the revelator, as he looks forward to the apocalypse way beyond his period of time.
There were red, black, white, and grisled and bay horses. They came out from between two mountains of brass (the extant powers). The angel told Zechariah, “These are the four spirits of the heavens, which go forth from standing before the Lord of all the earth.” “The black horses … go forth into the north country” –
Zech. 6:6. T his was despite being warned to “flee from the land of the north” – Zech. 2:6. “Then cried he (the angel) and said, Behold, these that go toward the north country have quieted my spirit” – Zech. 6:8. Black horses characterize those who persisted with obtrusive, rebellious, captive hearts. Everyone can point the finger.
In symbolism, the north country illustrates an opposition to the south — the Negeb, southern Judah, including Jerusalem. In Zechariah, the north represented Babylon. But in Revelation, it points at pagan-Christian Babylon. The hearts and minds of those who went to the north were Babylonian predisposed, possessed with institutional imprisonment of the mind and soul. And they have succeeded for two thousand years of denominational schisms.
Now we return to the four chariots with horses coming out from Media- Persia and Greece times. The white horses go forth after the black go forth into the north. But the white horses do not follow the black horses. The book of Zechariah opened with an early vision of post-exilic Jerusalem. The book soon transcends several centuries, as prophetic books do. In long-since desolated Jerusalem, restored and reasonably peaceful, disaster strikes. These are the days of the Greek rule, and many Jews have apostatized at noted in 1 Macc. They have joined the ranks of Antiochus Epiphanes plundering the temple and exterminate the faithful, steadfast citizens of Jerusalem.
Here, God sends a “valiant man” to deliver Israel. The savior was Judas Maccabees, son of Mattathias of Modin, an Ephramite. And he went forth, conquering and to conquer. Here is the white horse and his rider, Messiah; Faithful and True is Judas Maccabees. The white horse, in the days of the kingdom of the Jews, was in Judah; hence the horse is mentioned in Zech. 1. The grisled horses also go forth toward the south country – Zech. 6:6. The bay sought to walk to and fro through the earth. So they did – Zech. 6:7.
The book of Zechariah commences with the rider of the red horse already in Jerusalem, standing among the myrtle trees. That is where he stayed to help the conqueror, and he is not mentioned as going anywhere in Zech. 6.
The black horse does not appear in Zech. 1. His rider is going to Jerusalem’s northern enemy and this black horse rider had nothing to offer … but death of the soul and mind.
One has to have an appreciation of Zechariah and reorder this to Revelation chapter 6’s last days pending the great Apocalypse, which was very distant in time. The space would be global, with many horses to ride.
And a lot of images would be transposed from local to ultimate apotheosis – where mankind reaches beyond the possessive to the highest level, glory. Mankind is then likened to God, one could say transformed into deity.
The vivid portrayal of the four horsemen in Revelation, seen in high brassy statues, is a parody of the churches’ having theologically gone astray, in the wrong direction. Let us not err. The Bible has never been opened and is not something simply learned by rote and annual festivities. Revelation’s four horses have to be drawn out of Zechariah’s Grecian episode and transmogrified to the time when the book is opened. Luther never opened the book of Revelation. Many reject the book of Revelation. Bertrand Russel could make no sense of Revelation. Atheists, agnostics and academic lights have been turned off.
So the horsemen of late Christendom gallop similarly when it comes to finding the truth of the superlative – the layer on layer pedagogical teaching. Though not judgmental, the four seals, the opening of the four horses of personality, are introspective, asking each of us to examine our own feelings, knowledge and the correctness of ideas. A great inspiration battle springs forth. Minds chatter, What is the book about? The battle takes peace from the earth as the conflict intensifies.
“Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not come to send peace but a sword” – Matt. 10:34. And it is written, “They should kill one another.” Again, the gospel narrative is inscribed. “I am come to set man at variance against his father” – Matt. 10:35-36. All great change comes with upheaval, intellectual controversy about to be debated.
Revelation 6:5–6 — Black Horse
And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo a black horse; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand. And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine – Rev. 6:5–6.
Throughout the OT, the overarching message to ancient Israel and Judah was the condemnation of the worship of idols “Turn ye not unto idols, nor make to yourselves molten gods” – Lev. 19:4. This message is a main theme, Nothing is to be melted into a molten image. With the nation regressing, visible images of invisible doctrines become false exegesis.
Ezekiel described irrelevancies as idolatry. Time and time again, only to be delivered by a wave of uprightness, God’s peculiar people habitually slid into meaninglessness; described as abominations, whore mongering, divinations, sorceries, lies, or soothsaying. Uprightness, steadfastness, and faithfulness were personified by a merciful, forgiving leader. The judges were an example. They were personifying types, real-life beings helping community. In Hebraic terminology, this incessant decline was known as “that curse of the flesh.”
This is the incident when talking about the “black horse.”
Zech. 6:6 states, “The black horse went forth into the north country,” with north coming from tsaphon, which means “hidden, unknown, darkness.” North symbolizes a dark power; repressiveness; contrasted to the south, the Negeb, Judah. According to Zech. 6:8, “Those that go toward the north country (darkness) have quieted my spirit.” No messianic revival happens during the opening of third seal; it is all very dark, murderous and deadly. In a country where men loved darkness rather than light, there was no nourishment. Starvation in other words. Food portions were measured. Only a pair of balances in the hand (point of action) of the black horse rider. There was great famine in the land. The “north” land is a void, at war and death at every corner.
The man with the balances in his hand is cunning and deceitful. Israel and Judah are represented as Ephraim in Hosea 12:7–8, where the balances are found “in the hand”. This is in direct contrast to the parallel imagery in John’s reflection. In Hosea, the saying is, “He is a merchant (Canaan), the balances of deceit are in his hand: he loveth to oppress” – Hos. 12:7. And Ephraim self-accusingly said, “Yet I am become rich, I have found me out substance: in all my labours they shall find no iniquity in me that were sin.” Cultural stimulus was diminished. Charmed by self-glorification and self-importance the shadows of darkness covered the land. John, in a vision, saw this arrogant condition recurring. “I am rich, and increased with goods, and have need of nothing” – Rev. 3:17, boasted the Laodiceans, tokening denominations’ arrogant failure to come and brilliantly sensed by John.
In these words the cry is heard, “Awake, ye drunkards, and weep; and howl, all ye drinkers of wine, because of the new wine; for it is cut off from your mouth” – Joel 1:5. “Be ye ashamed, O ye husbandmen; howl O ye vine dressers, for the wheat and for the barley; because the harvest of the field is perished” – Joel 1:11. In the language of a portrait, their judgment is given. “Behold, the days come, saith the Lord God, that I will send a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the word of the Lord” – Amos 8:11–12. All will be weighed in the balances at the time of opening. A cultured life has to be the fabric of whiteness, the clean linen one can wear.
However, we leave the end of the third seal with the eternal flicker of light: “and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine” – Rev. 6:6. The servants of God, the solders, are never to be stifled. There are always a remnant whose appetite is for the ancients’ message.
Oil was for lighting lamps as well as for anointing the light-bearers. The wine was to be kept for the celebration of the victory of the saints who are called to the marriage supper of the Lamb and his wife.
Revelation is a one-step-at-a-time book. Each unsealing brings to our attention to the particular. Each opening seal needs time to ponder, consider, and digest. Don’t rush, stand amongst the myrtle.
Revelation 6:7–8 — Pale Horse
And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth beast say, Come and see. And I looked and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them (or to him) over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with the sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth – Rev. 6:7–8.
These fourfold calamities (sword, hunger, death, and beasts) were promised to ancient Jerusalem. Revelation draws the lesson from the time of Ezekiel but projects it into the reign of the end times for Christendom as we have known it. “The elders of Israel had set up their idols in their heart, and put the stumbling block of their iniquity before their face.” “So will I send upon you famine and evil beasts, and they shall bereave thee; and pestilence and blood shall pass through thee; I will bring the sword upon thee” – see Ezek. 5:5–17 and 14:1–23.
The “pale horse” comes with four curses. This is a very grim picture. To begin, the word pale is from chlōrŏs and means “greenish,” the same as the “green” grass mentioned later with the first trumpet. The rider is bringing maledictions to those who are verdant, inexperienced, or naïve — those who make no effort to understand anything. The word chlōrŏs is derived from chŏlē, a female Christian name. So the seal is clearly directed at the churches of our dispensation. A female name is used as woman is symbolic of the life-giver. The pale horse is used to bring punishment to those who have blindly and without question or effort accepted maxims. His rider’s name is Death, and hell followed with him.
The writers of the seals proceed to relate the four torments — sword, hunger, death, and beasts. Why four? Four illustrates the four points of the compass, inferencing global, “the four winds of the earth.” This seal reveals a worldwide judgment within ecclesiasticism. But those outside ecclesiasticism are also caught up in the web. No one escapes scrutiny:
“Sword”: This sword is a counterfeit. It is not the word of the Spirit of God (not the sword machaira of the red horse rider). Coming from the word rhŏmphaia, meaning “saber” or “cutlass,” it is a very malicious, ravaging weapon, spitefully triumphing over torpidity, those ignoring the spirit of cultural ascent (The Written Word), in favor of possessiveness and passiveness.
“Hunger”: From limŏs, hunger is a scarcity of sustenance for the soul. The previously mentioned famine (third black rider) has intensified. There is a longing for the food of mercy. Is it genuine? Isaiah vividly assigns the following: “Now go, write it before them in a table, and note it in a book, that it may be for a time to come forever and ever: That this is a rebellious people, lying children, children that will not hear the law of the Lord: Which say to the seers, See not; and to the prophets, Prophesy not unto us right things, speak unto us smooth things, prophecy deceits.” Is this the food that the “green” grass will accept? “Therefore this iniquity shall be to you as a breach ready to fall, swelling out in the high wall, whose breaking cometh suddenly at an instant” – Isa. 30:8–13.
“Death”: Literal death means permanent cessation. Death is loss of a cultural life for the material. John is writing in the spiritual sense. It is interesting to consider OT quotes regarding life and death in the flesh. The ancient writers are exemplifying the imperishable life. They uplift the food of the Spirit that the faithful hand to others. As they ingest their gift, a “higher heaved thing”, they in turn offer renewed real sustenance evident in the written word over phonetics. This artisan possesses everlasting life. But death — how is death presented. Many quotes could be given, but a two shall suffice: “For in death there is no remembrance of thee: in the grave who shall give thee thanks?” – Ps. 6:5. “Consider and hear me. O Lord my God: lighten mine eyes, lest I should sleep the sleep of death” – Ps. 13:3; see Ps. 115:17, Eccles. 9:5–6, 10.
Ezekiel has much to say concerning “death”, mainly using the word pestilence, in a vision of the fourfold punishment brought upon Jerusalem. Ponder the reason this calamity that befell Jerusalem. Today those professing godliness are the corresponding part of ancient Jerusalem, tied to pretense and a foundation of conformity. Think about this:
“The elders of Israel … Son of man, these men have set up their idols in their heart, and have put a stumbling block of their iniquity before their face: should I be enquired of at all by them? … Every man of the house of Israel that setteth his idols in his heart, and putteth before his face, and cometh to the prophet; I the Lord will answer him that cometh according to the multitude of his idols; That I may take the house of Israel in their own heart, because they are all estranged from me through their idols. Therefore say unto the house of Israel, Thus saith the Lord God; Repent and turn yourselves from your idols; and turn away your faces from all your abominations” – Ezek. 14:1-6.
“For thus saith the Lord God; How much more when I send my four sore judgments upon Jerusalem, the sword, and the famine, and the noisome beast, and the pestilence, to cut off from it man and beast? Yet behold therein shall be left a remnant that shall be brought forth, both sons and daughters: behold they shall come forth unto you, and ye shall see their way and their doings: and ye shall be comforted concerning the evil that I have brought upon Jerusalem, even concerning all that I have brought upon it. And they shall comfort you, when you shall see their ways and their doings, and ye shall know that I have not done without cause all that I have done in it, saith the Lord God” – Ezek. 14:21-23.
We are looking for the remnant in the end of days. We have to find that remnant, here and there.
The “beasts of the earth”: These are a similitude of the two beasts described in Rev. 13:1 and 13:11. Revelation is saying that the former beasts in kind will arise again in the end times before the new age. They are types, metaphors, and parameters for sumperimposed application.
The initial, typical “beasts of the earth” vision was taken from OT Bible history and from prophetically written in Daniel 7–9 concerning the kings and kingdom of the pre-exilic, pre-Babylonian captivity. The second, a beast with two horns, is again referring to Jewish governance of the Pharisees and Sadducees in the NT. It is not Rome. The book is all about Jewish governance. The second beast with two horns, it is said, should make an image of the first beast. Rome is not the subject, just as it could not have been in Dan. 2.
Both these two “beasts of the earth” show powers that arose quite unpretentiously but declined into treacherous corruption and tyranny.
Let’s quickly reiterate a brief outline of these “beasts of the earth” as they are emphasized by the fourth rider of Revelation 6:8.
We find the ten-horned beast and the seven-headed beast in Revelation 13:1. As the story proceeds, we see that the Hebrews left repression in Egypt (the dragon — Ezek. 29:3). They probably left in little groups and journeyed to Canaan, where they settled as a boisterous, rebellious, brutalized mob. Israel of old was unrefined in the time of Judges even to the time of King Saul, the first king. Then the kingdom of Israel was given to David, and progress began with the command to Solomon to construct the temple. Israel divided into two kingdoms, with ten tribes (the ten horns) to the north and Judah’s two tribes to the south.
Israel apostatized and was assimilated into Assyria, never to rise again. Judah followed the Davidian line and had many ups and downs. Judah continually backslid into idolatry up to the time of Hezekiah (Immanuel who restored the virgin without God, to the virgin with God) and then regressed further during the last seven wicked kings (the seven heads) of Judah, with minor reforms under Josiah that did not take hold.
Thus we have the two pre-exilic kingdoms:
- Israel: destroyed
- Judah: two captivities to Babylon; briefly in Jehoiachin’s reign (606 BC) and then in Zedekiah’s reign (588 BC).
The second beast of Revelation 13:11, reflects the beast of the NT era. It also is a forewarning of much more ferocious beasts that would arise dominating universally in a foreseen global milieu. Again, this beast with the two horns is a transposition from the kingdom of the Jews. Post-Babylonian captivity saw the kingdom rise to power, prepared to reinstigate anew. All was quiet for some time. Gradually, Jews took an interest in idolatrous Hellenism – see 1 Macc. 1:11–15. Their own culture began to wane. The renegade Jews hardened their hearts, blinded with Grecian mores. Renegade Jews joined Antiochus Epiphanes (the Greek-Syrian leader) to plunder the temple. Many Jews became hellenized and translated their sacred books into Greek. Daniel termed the idol worshipping Jews as, “an host that was given him (Antiochus Epiphanes) against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practiced and prospered” – Dan. 8:12. Daniel confirms this conspiracy in Daniel 8:24, “but not by his own power.”
Here in Greek days, the post-exilic era of the Jewish kingdom originated in all sincerity, but it ended in turmoil and hostility due to the traitorous rebellion of Jews to Antiochus Epiphanes and despair of Jewish governance. This despair grew until the victory by Judas Maccabees over Antiochus Epiphanes. With Judas Maccabees’ victory, the temple was repaired and rededicated – 2 Macc. 10:1–8. So peaceful a nation was it, that Zechariah records, “There shall yet old men and old women dwell in the streets of Jerusalem, and every man with his staff in his hand for very age. And the streets of the city shall be full of boys and girls playing in the streets thereof” – Zech. 8:4–5.
The Hasmonean kingdom of the Jews established official contacts with the Romans, leading to the Roman invasion of Judea in 63 BC, with the Hasmoneans being displaced in 37 BC and the appointment of Herod the Great. Although Herod rebuilt the temple, many Greek-Roman style sporting contests were introduced, including gladiatorial combats and chariot races held in the new arenas. Within Judea, four groups were identified: the Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, and Zealots. Pharisees claimed to be keepers of the oracles of God and unwavering retainers of Levitical law. The Sadducees held the civic power. Both were tyrannical and oppressive. Both were to be held responsible for silencing the messianic body some of whom were Essenes and Zealots. The two-horned beast of gospel days, we are told, “spake as a dragon.” Some matters were referred to Rome but were always sanctioned through the Jewish councils, Sanhedrin, and high priests. Rome reluctantly and at last resort intervened in the life and times of the early messianic movement, personified in the likes of John the Baptist and Jesus Christ.
Paul’s writing reflected the true inspiration in the OT, passed down in textual form. Paul, a Pharisee, grasped the intent of the Testaments by the Scribes and saw that light shine a pedagogical teaching layer upon layer. The synoptic, using midrashic techniques, were supplementary to Paul by recording the angst against Jewish leadership in detail. The synoptic list chapter after chapter of the questioning misdemeanors and crimes with intent by the Pharisees, Sadducees, scribes, and other administrators. The messianic awakening realized too well that the two-horned beast would eventually lead to the total collapse of the Judean society, but that did not eventuate until long after the dating of the Messiah with the burning of Jerusalem in AD 70.
A superficial interpretation of the messianic catastrophe would be indelibly etched in the minds of future generations. Its resurrected body and second coming would have to wait until apocalyptic times. The uprising had been inspired by Judas’s victory over the Grecians with Judas being the stone setting up the everlasting kingdom. The persecution and crucifixion was to be recorded in the NT documenting the long struggle over the restrictive latter-day Pharisees and Sadducees. John, the revelator, pictured these former beasts, arising again in earthly end times. The year AD 70 was not the subject of the NT but initiated the permanent end to old Judaism and was the perfect environment for a new, watered-down version of theological philosophy to merge with Greek philosophy of idealism. It lead to an extensive Age of Darkness – a complete tunnel of darkness.
Enough said about the pale horse’s – Rev. 6:7 power over the fourth part of earth. The pale-greenish horse, usually those deeming themselves knowledgeable, is likely to be those proffering violence for resolution of contentious issues. This violence comes to the fore in Rev. 13 when these former beasts of the earth have prominence. The fourth seal — pale horse, sword, hunger, death, and beasts — forewarns us of apocalyptic times.
We all know Palm Sunday (the Sunday before Easter) – when palms being the sacrament, commemorates Christ’s alleged entry into Jerusalem. This is an ingrained symbol of our psychology pointing to Christ’s glory and divinity. But, is this interpretation of John12:12-13 correct – “On the next day much people that were come to the feast … Took branches of palm trees … and cried Hosanna: Blessed is the king of Israel”? Is there something more significant behind the story? The existing perception may be grossly inadequate. It is a perfect example for review of how institutionalized forces manipulated ancient texts. These texts used strictly allegorical methods of type and antitype to paint a lasting impression. This methodology is far removed from our contemporary staid understanding. After exposing ecclesiastical blunders one may begin anew, and show that allegory in the Scriptures added much more than merely a carry-over from ancient mythologies of Egypt and its surrounds, though many of the Hebraic symbols originated there.
Palms in the Old Testament – Original Intent
In the Old Testament the waving of palms occurred during the Feast of Tabernacles. This sacred statute was at the very heart of the Hebrews’ religion. In the northern autumn, at the end of the harvest, the Day of Atonement was celebrated on the 10th day of the seventh month Trishri. The Feast of Tabernacles followed on 15th – 22nd of the same month:
“And ye shall take you on the first day the boughs of the goodly trees, branches of palm trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook; and ye shall rejoice before the Lord your God seven days” – Lev. 23:40.
The taking of palms is again emphasized in 2 Maccabees 10:6-8:
“And they kept eight days with gladness, as in the feast of tabernacles, remembering that not long afore they had held the feast of the tabernacles, when as they wandered in the mountains and dens like beasts. Therefore they bare branches, and fair boughs, and palms also, they sang psalms unto him that had given them good success in cleansing his place. They ordained also by a common statute and decree, That every year those days should be kept of the whole nation of the Jews.”
The waving of palms was only associated with the sacred autumnal ceremonial of northern hemisphere and was never a part of the Old Testament northern hemisphere’s spring events of Passover. For ideological supremacy the waving of palms was deliberately dispatched to what is called Easter (autumn in southern hemisphere, spring in northern hemisphere) in the New Testament. Institutional powers of the 3rd century had their own agenda. Forces of absolute darkness decreed, at all costs, to alter the original of the early spiritual Scriptures. This can now be conclusively documented. If of course there has been a gross violation of the texts for ulterior purposes then this can have wide implications.
This paper will contend that the Scriptures relied on essentially, what is called, high level allegory, using layered (superimposed) type and antitype principles to build up a recollection of illustrations. The principle of type/antitype should be explained a little. Type is an object and is implicit. Sometimes it is a pattern, a figure or pre-figuration. It can be an illustration, a shadowy impression even a number. Antitype is subjective and explicit where the true meaning of a type is revealed. Antitype gives a mental illumination to a message veiled in type. This thesis proposes the Old and New Testaments are intertwined to a very great degree. By the use of tracing methodology and original word meanings, from lexical sources, the script’s thread and intent is very clear. It is therefore not possible for the waving of palms to have such flagrant seasonal inconsistency. This article will (hopefully) demonstrate that those bent on literalizing, deliberately, have tried to adjust texts for naked ideological dominance.
John 12:12 – “On the next day” in English translations is one example. Note the following translations. These all followed a remarkable change from the original in about 3rd to 4th century A.D.
John Wycliffe Bible: 12:12 – “But on the morew a myche puple, that cam togidere to the feeste dai, whanne thei hadden herd, that Jhesus cam to Jerusalem”, 12:13 – “token braunchis of palmes”.
Also King James, Douay Rheims, Noah Webster, Weymouth, Old English, American Standard, Darby’s…Young’s Literal Translation have similar some stating “On the morrow”.
All versions then go on to talk about the taking of branches of palms and refer this to the Passover feast of the northern hemisphere’s spring celebration, citing John 12:1, which reads from KJV “Jesus six days before Passover came to Bethany”. For New Testament scholars John 12 appears to set the scene alluding to Passover. By the time one reads verses 12-13 the words “On the next day”, or equivalent as above, are used to confirm that on the Sunday after the Saturday of John 12:12 much people came waving palm branches; thus erroneously verifying Palm Sunday in our psyche. This paper will proceed to show you the result of the devious change of words in John 12:12-13 and later John12:14-15 – “ … King cometh sitting upon as ass.”
Summary of Two Basic Types in “The Gospel according to St John”
John 12:1-16. Atonement and Feast of Tabernacles given briefly here will soon be followed by more detail.
As established the Old Testament is completely contradictory to the carrying of palms in the northern spring equinox. Indeed it was the function of the Hebrew statute associated with the sacred year’s seventh month Trishri. Succeeding Atonement the waving of palms took place during the Feast of Tabernacles. John 12:1-16 follows this pattern with the addition of calling up another type. Later this extra illustration shall be dealt with in detail below.
The first type in John 12 is illustrated with the raising of Lazarus – John 12:1. The raising of Lazarus was a New Testament presentation and enlightenment of the Old Testament Day of Atonement – the raising of Lazarus being the equivalent of the cleansing of the temple. John 12:1 – “Jesus six days before Passover came to Bethany (NOW WHAT IS IMPORTANT HERE?) where Lazarus was which had been dead, whom he (Jesus) raised from the dead.” Passover is here superseded by atonement. With the coming of Messiah, persecution and subjugation, the true pascal lamb was here. The raising of Lazarus being resurrection pointed to the pinnacle of divine power. It was the sublime redemption of human Creativity. It was paramount and high revered.
- Feast of Tabernacles
Now to the second type of John 12. In the Old Testament the Feast of Tabernacles follows a few days after Day of Atonement, in the northern autumn. The carrying of palms was never associated with the vernal (spring) equinox. The Feast of Tabernacles was a joyous occasion as it followed reparation from wrong to reconciliation with God. It is the most solemn feast of the Jewish sacred year.
The New Testament illuminates the meanings of the Old Testament types. Here in John 12:12-13 the Feast of Tabernacles follows expiation with the God of love. This was the important message. With the fall of man to an acquisitive spirit, called Cain in the Genesis story, the gradual ascent to redeem a community consciousness began with this feast. The Feast of Tabernacles was a type of the joy that accompanies mankind’s salvation from a warrior-acquisitiveness to the grace of a celestial (sacred)-terrestrial (civil) benevolent oneness, said to be one with God. The scene of Feast of Tabernacles is superimposed in John 12:12-13 from the Old Testament. An institutional power replaced this superimposed picture with a phase “on the next day”. We will examine why the words “on the next day” replaced the superimposition of the original texts. This is done below.
Enumeration of Day of Atonement and Feast of Tabernacles
- Enumeration of Day of Atonement (More regarding the resurrection of Lazarus)
John 12:1 – “Jesus six days before Passover came to Bethany where Lazarus was which had been dead, whom he raised from the dead.”
As already stated, the picture of the raising of Lazarus is the New Testament was a fulfillment of an Old Testament type – atonement, resurrection. Today, Bethany is said to be a village at the Mount of Olives. The modern name is el-Azariajah or Lazarieh from the name Lazarus, and is very relevant to the New Testament narrative.
“Six days before Passover”, we are told by scripture reckoning, would fall on Saturday. Bethany, in the gospel pictorial, is where Lazarus (from Greek means without help) was raised from the dead. The words “without help” indicate that the name Lazarus is a personification. The expression “dead” is from the Greek word THNESKO or THANTOS, signifying literally or figuratively, to die, or from THANO, past tense, has been dead. The word “dead” is figurative as the narrative portrays the raising of the helpless depraved psyche to a more excellent condition of hope and understanding.
When the Greek-Jews wrote “dead” from NEKROS or “death” from THANATIS, this is what they were telling us – “To be carnally minded is death, but to be spiritually minded is life and peace” – Rom. 8:6 … “And if Christ be in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the Spirit is life because of righteousness” – Rom. 8:10. In these verses is a tiny glimpse of atonement – real life. It should be noted the word “sin” from HAMATIA means, an offense, or from HAMARTANO meaning, negative – not a cleansed temple. Sin cannot share the prize of reconciliation with the Creative, the Almighty or Divine within.
Lazarus “which had been dead” personified the indifferent, impotent non-productive, not bothering to do anything soul. They possessed intellect without motivation, called earlier Hamites (lazy, unmotivated, unproductive) or Japethites (warrior-acceptor) – in contrast to the Shemites (renowned motivators). The personification of saving-power, “he shall save his people” is named Jesus in Matt. 1:21. This title is duplicated from Isa. 7:14 which gave the name Immanual to Hezekiah. Hezekiah saved his people, with the help of the indwelling God, from the Assyrians. Here in Matt. 1:23 Jesus of verse 21 is called Emmanuel meaning, God or love (charity or benevolence) with us. So one could say, a philanthropic spirit helped the helpless Lazarus just as the judges had helped. This spirit in Hezekiah was call “The mighty God”, “The everlasting Father”, “the Prince of Peace”, “Wonderful” and “Counsellor” of the Branch of Jesse. Such accolades are hard to come by. Hezekiah restored the Temple and the temple within in Jewish philosophical notation.
Now the Old Testament Jerusalem temple-service was purely a pattern to restore the human spirit to pristine perfection. Then he/she has the ability to reach divinity (his/her creativity). That inventive genius is innate to mankind, male and female. The soul-temple is the true and original temple way above any terrestrial Temple. It is the heavenly temple where The Almighty eternal spirit dwells. The earthly temple cleansed, was a pattern, a type, something to aspire to. It requires meditative listening of each “still small voice”. The earthly temple was merely a figure for the time then present. A redeeming of the true temple’s rectitude is a removing of the impurity of idealistic worship and blind submission to any ideological persuasion.
Having moved on from teaching by signs and symbols such as are in the night sky (a very ancient practice that has been well and truly superseded) the Hebrews devised a more sophisticated way to teach by using pedagogical metaphors, allegories and graphic stories of their governance, their enslavement and their redemption – called salvation. They used personification endowed with images, figures, symbols, and glyphs. The service of the earthly temple on the Day of Atonement exemplified the taking way of the tarnish of pedantry of idolatrous false adoration of sophisticated rituals, doctrines, creeds which we generally label as literalism or a handover of initiative.
The significance of the temple-ceremonies (the Day of Atonement etc.) could never be comprehended by the very illiterate, very poor, members of ancient Israel. Strict observance of the feasts, offerings and rituals became compulsory for “salvation” they were told. This is where Judaism fell into an annihilative manner that was less helpful than beneficial, century after century – it was a country run top down with no encouragement for advancement to strengthen the body politic. Observation of the rituals, year in and year out, aided not their station in life. The typical Day of Atonement was foremost meant as a figurative emancipation teaching resurrecting the dead to a progressive ascent of potential ability. This is the Lazarus story.
2. Enumeration of Feast of Tabernacles (More information regarding John 12:12-13)
Subsequent to atonement the taking of branches of palm trees is recorded in John12:13. Commencing this scene in verse 12, “On the next day much people were come to the feast”… verse 13 … “Took branches of palm trees, and went forth to meet him (Jesus)…”
As the early verses of John 12 recall atonement, then, “On the next day” of John 12:12 would seem out of place. It would appear to be the day after atonement! To show that this is not the case an examination of the phrase, “On the next day” from its original wording is necessary. By using lexical sources it is possible to find the correct original translation.
Firstly, it should be stated, the meaning of the word “day” depends on the preceding word, e.g. next day – EPAURION. If it were “today” or “this day” the derivation would be SEMEROY.
Now to investigate what appears to be an anomaly.
To begin, the words “next day” from the Greek is EPAURION and literally implies tomorrow. By applying EPAURION literally “the next day” becomes a deception. The next day, EPAURION, is from EPI meaning superimposition (of time, place, order etc.). It is dative case, having the function of an indirect object, (parallels an original type as an example). A superimposition means to “lay something over something” – to place something such as a transparent image on or over something else, often with the result that both things appear simultaneously, although one may partially obscure the other. In other words an antitype is an overlay a type. Or it can be said an archetype overlays the antitype which may overlay a type. It could also be said that the Universal overlays the National, that overlays the Local. That is what is meant by a superimposition. So EPAURION means a superimposition not “On the next day” but an overlay. (The whole book of Revelation is based on superimpositions – coming soon).
EPAURION is also made up of AURION being an adverb (modifier of verb) with ellipses or HERMERA = a period. Ellipses meaning, an omission of something understood, over a period. The omission of something understood references back to the Old Testament type … maybe a period or long intermission maybe of centuries. The scribes were masters of interconnection. HEMERA also means a time between dawn and darkness or 24 hours (but several days were usually reckoned, by the Jews, as an inclusion of the parts of both extremes = a period). See Strong’s concordance for further insight.
The omission of something understood now becomes clearer.
The word superimposition referred to the Feast of Tabernacles, having resulted in the writers looking back to the original temple-type. The Feast of Tabernacles ceremony was laid on top (superimposed) on what was seen as the Passover story commencing in John 12:1. The Passover story in month of Abid, however, does not follow the pattern of the Old Testament Day of Atonement. Lazarus, raised from the dead (atonement) then the Feast of Tabernacles scene of John 12:13 does follow Atonement. But John 12:1 says “Jesus six days before Passover came to Bethany” and then we have atonement of Lazarus. This is the major anomaly as it is not “On the next day” but is a superimposition.
Was there an ulterior purpose in this change of context? It was easy to replace “The next scenes are a superimposition” to “On the next day”.
Was there some exemption to the rules of the Hebraic philosophy of history, in the minds of the Greek-Jews, without any explanation? Was it something plucked out of the blue by the Greek-Jews? This transmutation sent haywire the entire structure of the vital message of retrieving freedom (atonement) of conscience ascent for the illiterate, uneducated “dead” poor. It was completely out-of-focus, berserk and alien to the Old Testament model that was a figure for the time then present; and now to be applied virtuously and incorporeally in New Testament times. It is really vandalism to change the superimposition to a literal “on the next day”. Such wreckage and distortment was something purely by design and very devious by those who wanted to reinstall a procedural day to become a ritual and observed yearly. A superimposition cannot be literalized to “the next day” but is an association to show continuity.
Let’s have an intermission, a period, for reflection. More shall be documented about this destructive change in translation at the end of this article.
So here is some more background.
The Feast of Tabernacles is the first superimposition of John 12. There are two superimpositions and a third begins in verse 14. The reason for two dominant unassimilated features is that it is written into the Hebrew’s sacred law, quote – “At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses shall he that is worthy of death be put to death; but at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death” – Deut. 17:6.
And the third witness follows Atonement and the Feast of Tabernacles. John 12:14-15 – “And Jesus, when he had found a young ass, sat thereupon; as it is written, Fear not, daughter of Sion: behold, thy King cometh, sitting on an ass’s colt.” And where was it written?
It is well known that this quotation was borrowed as type from Zechariah 9:9 – “Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee; he is just and having salvation: lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass.” So here is another type relayed onto antitype. Why did the scribes rely on the superimposition of type in antitype? For witnessing there is nothing new under the sun.
Foremost to the documentation of this type/antitype inscription, John 12:16 should be given much consideration as this verse confirms that the methodology of superimposition would not be understood – “These things understood not his disciples at the first.” The disciples were steeped in the literalism of Judaism under the Pharisees and Sadducees. Under the sacred-civil rulership the sanctuary services and rituals must literally and punctiliously be observed time and time over. With a new teaching of superimposing (a type of metaphor) Old Testament narrative-types, this unhinged the disciples (learners or pupils from the word MATHETES). They did not understand at first. But Paul’s epiphany was the sudden light of superimposition of the written word as a pedagogical procedure preserving their cultural inheritance, a learning tool-teacher as implemented in the Old Testament’s undercurrent. It is the Enoch of yesteryear carried down to the pupils of a latter generation. Once the character, Jesus of the Gospels, was “lifted up” in glory, – or come, to be known as the harbinger of faithfulness and justice, then they saw that literal “things were written of him”, in type. Types were indicators and not to be taken as other than for ensamples for virtuous mankind. Without education all was void, barbarous and giants roamed the lands destructing.
In substance, “These things understood not the disciples” refers directly to the arch fundamentalist who has a truth for others. These dedicated souls do not comprehend the dative case type/antitype systematization. It is challenging to the modern mind as it arose as a descriptive methodology far in advance of hieroglyphs and cuneiform. Unfortunately this wonderful teaching-method has been distorted for quiet secular gain. The human mind constantly directed towards the material acquisitive world has resulted in a regression from spiritual lessons. As we enter the universal age, an apocalyptic era, we will not remain with just vicarious faith or non-faith but is a positive trajectory of the ascent that is continuous. It is our resurrection.
So, you see, there was no literal taking of branches of palm trees and no Jesus sitting on an ass’s colt. Oh such awe. Ah! These were Old Testament remembrances of bondage.
Now returning to Zech. 9:9 and the riding on an ass
“Rejoice greatly O daughter of Zion” – Zech 9:9. Why such great rejoicing? Because Jerusalem could celebrate a great victory over a despotic enemy, the Selucid king Antiochus Epiphanes by Judas Maccabees. The Selucids were a Syrian division of Greece following the downfall of Alexander the Great. Antiochus Epiphanes tyrannically enforced his laws upon the Jewish people. They were persecuted if attempting to live by their national culture. No liberty was permitted. This victory was a practical atonement succeeded by great rejoicing. Later writers looked back to those old illustrations of types to offer comparison, compassion, courage and trust. New Testament scribes etched them for subsequent post-Christ persecution days lessons. The populace had been through hard times in the days of the Hasmoneans and especially the brutality and suppression of Herod the Great.
The detail of the war, between the House of Judah and the Selucids, is more historically recorded in the Books of Maccabees, with a slant towards victory coming with the help of “their” God.
The Books of Maccabees do not give the characters involved a personification. The telling of this time, in their contribution to erudition, is not colored with myth and symbols to create a philosophy or personification of history. This was chronological time. This might be why the Jews did not accept these Books as part of the Hebrew Old Testament canon.
However, dealing with the Kingdom of the Jews the latter part of the large Old Testament “prophetic” books contribute to pedagogical education. These books elucidate in post-exilic Israel in their well-established method of colorful graphics, myth, figures and symbols. Zechariah is one example and it is no wonder that John’s ass portrayal was lifted from the post-exilic victory. Other smaller “prophetic” books were written between 800 B.C. and 300 B.C. and were never meant to be taken literally as we tend to do today.
It should be explained, the usage of the word “prophetic” does not mean, “to be taken literally as though yet to happen”. Prophetic writers were coloring past events, but making them conceptual shadows of spiritual matters – ever-present for future synchronization such as in John 12’s Atonement of Lazarus, Feast of Tabernacles and replication of the one riding on an ass.
The subject of the Scripture writers is spirituality, an exuberance for the God within to excel – continually, not a chronology, ever completing. This inner glow, this craving for life is about to blossom after two thousand years of not revealing Christ, the anointment. Understanding this concept is created by listening intently to “the still small voice.” The writers’ stupendous effort was to transfer experiences from merely mundane history to elevated levels of perceptions from all our senses. This involved conveying to the soul a moral, virtuous abstract but very real quality of the illiterate reality faced by the majority – about 95% of the populace. Using the tangible or visible as a vehicle enabled a personification of the never-ending ascent and evolution from the artificial restrictions especially of institutional principalities and high offices of all kinds. The spiritual concept is ever-present, is ever expanding, and non-exhaustive. It is now universal and dynamic in every way. The old must give way to the newer testament of today, not a carryover from the dark ages.
To understand the ass story, the victory over Antiochus Epiphanes is not the subject of this paper. Suffice to say, quotes from Maccabees align with extracts from the Book of Zechariah giving reasons why the writers of John12:14-16 decided to juxtapose a Roman day narrative with a Maccabean victory presented in shadowy form in Zech. 9:9. Prior to the great event of Zech. 9:9 “thy King cometh unto thee … riding upon an ass” the writers had told of the Jewish goal achieved by Judas Maccabees – “I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, and the house from Jerusalem, and the battle bow shall be cut off and he shall speak peace unto the heathen: and his dominion shall be from sea even to sea and from river even to the ends of the earth” – Zech. 9:10.
Judas Maccabeus was an Ephraimite from Modin in the territory of Ephraim. 1 Macc. 2:1-4. The Selucid chariots were cut off and the horses (black and bay) from Jerusalem, and the battle bow cut off prior to the Jews great victory –1 Macc. 4:28-34. “And he shall speak peace unto the heathen” – Zech. 9:10. “Judas…left Joseph and the Azarias captains of the people … in Judea … Unto whom he gave commandment, saying, take ye charge of the people and see that ye make not war against the heathen…” – see 1 Macc. 5:17-19.
As the writers of the Maccabees Books wrote semi-historically it could be said, literally his (Maccabeus’) dominion eventually was from sea to sea, from east of the Salt Sea (Dead Sea) to the Mediterranean Sea, and from the river (possibly Litam River) even to the ends of the earth. But, the Book of Zechariah is symbolical and seas or waters represent peoples – see Jer. 46:7-8 and Rev. 17:15 just to mention two instances. The word “river” from NAHAR figuratively is prosperity. Zechariah’s statement is describing a dominion of prosperous people.
Continuing to the victory scene, “When I have bent Judah for me, filled the bow with Ephraim, and raised up thy sons, O Zion, against thy sons O Greece, and made thee as the sword of a mighty man, the Lord (Jehovah, Jewish national name of God) shall be seen over them, and his arrow shall go forth as the lightning.” The scene – the Jews reconciled with justice – Zech. 9:13-14 and therefore their King could ride on a common ass as an ensign of victory.
The following chapters of Zechariah show the belief that idolatry and false prophecies, bring disaster. Faithfulness (steadfastness) and righteousness bring victory, never meek faith. The writers anticipated a great emancipated future extending in time throughout the globe, believing then all will celebrate the true feast of tabernacles – Zech. 14. And there would be bells on the horses (red and white).
Atonement is well worth celebrating, as it is that great celebration with the indwelling God, “the still small voice”. “Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?” So rejoice we can be assured of victory over death.
Manipulation Around the 3rd Century
By about the third century of this dispensation a literalist and false translation of original Eastern writings by Hellenized Jews now in the hands of westerners was carefully devised to accommodate Constantine’s idolatrous sun-worship. The superimposition was changed to “on the morrow” or “on the next day”. Constantine decreed the sun-god must be venerated, “The earliest law by which the observance of the first day of the week was ordained, is the edict of Constantine 321.” – “Haydn’s Dictionary of Dates”. “Centuries of the Christian era passed away before Sunday was observed by the Christian Church as a Sabbath. History does not furnish us with a single proof or indication that it was any time so observed previous to the Sabbatical edict of Constantine in A.D. 321.” “The Sabbath: or an Examination of the Six Texts” by a layman (Sir William Domville), p. 291. London Chapman and Hall.
The entire plan in changing John 12:12 was to introduce Sunday “the next say” rather than to appreciate the Jewish superimposition. Sunday was nothing to do with the Hebrew message. The ancient Jewish law had set aside the seventh-day of the week (Saturday) to commemorate Creation. They called their God of creation Jehovah or Yahweh.
In 323 A.D. Constantine openly professed the Christian religion bringing with him not only Sunday-worship but also the celebration of the re-birth of the sun god to the northern hemisphere.
The following extract from Roman Catholic Catechisms is interesting:-
Sabbath, Change of,
Question – Which is the Sabbath day?
Answer – Saturday is the Sabbath day.
Question – Why do we observe Sunday instead of Saturday?
Answer – We observe Sunday instead of Saturday because the Catholic Church, in the Council of Laodica (A.D.), transferred the solemnity from Saturday to Sunday – “The Convert’s Catechism of Catholic Doctrine,” Rev. Peter Yeir-mann.
Note: This work received the apostolic blessing of Pope Pius X, Jan. 25, 1910 – EDS.
The precise year of the holding of the Council of Laodica is a matter of considerable doubt. Some writer’s place it before the Council of Nicaea (325) whilst the Catholic Encyclopedia suggests that it was probably subsequent to the Council of Constantinople (381). Many old writers use A.D. 364.
So by the time of John Wycliffe the insertion of the phrase, “On the next day” was status quo. Going unchallenged it justified Psalm Sunday. It also justified Sunday and the rebirth of the sun as well.
Dispensing with the subtly inserted and manipulated phrase, “On the next day” extinguishes Palm Sunday, the very deception it was designed to inaugurate. Conveniently incorporated into ancient spring festivals, when the sun was seen to be above the equator shinning equal light to both hemispheres, was the appropriate time to deceive the unwary with idolatrous literal ritual.
The message of the spirited re-birth or atonement in the northern autumn celebrated with the joyful waving of palm trees was destroyed. Literalism adopted by ecclesiasticism (Christianism) has committed an aggressive assault upon a plan to re-instate the uprightness of pristine integrity, which the messianic body, personified by Jesus, proclaimed.
Early writers understanding human nature wrote regarding vandals, who early in this dispensation defiled the benign Hebraic writings – “Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day (when Faithful and True doth judge and make war) shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin (HAMARTIA, offensive, negative, cannot share in the prize of atonement) be revealed, the son of perdition.” “Put not your trust in princes, nor in the son of man, in whom there is no help.” “Study to, show thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.”
Such is life, so it is, let’s enjoy.